The human ear: structure, diagram and pictures outer and inner ear

What is the human ear?

The human organ of hearing is necessary for the natural functioning of a person. The ears are responsible for the receptivity of the sound waves, processing into nerve impulses and sending the converted dB in the brain. In addition, the ear is responsible for the implementation of the equilibrium function.

Despite the apparent simplicity of the ear, structure of the organ of hearing is considered to be incredibly complex. In this article the structure of the ear of the person.

The structure of the

Ear organ has a paired structure located in the temporal part of the cortex of the large hemispheres of the brain. The ear organ is characterized by constant execution of several tasks.

However, the main function is the reception and processing of sounds of different frequencies.

In the future, they are transmitted to the brain and send signals to the body in the form of electrical signals.

A hearing aid is perceived as low frequency sounds and high frequency up to 2 dozen kHz.

Man accepts frequencies above sixteen Hertz. However, the higher the threshold the human ear does not exceed twenty thousand Hertz.

To the human eye is only open outdoor area. In addition, the ear consists of two departments:

  • secondary;
  • internal.

Each section of the hearing aid has an individual structure and defined functions. The three sections are connected in an elongated Eustachian tube, which is sent to the brain. To visualize this pattern, inspect a photo of the ear in cross section.

The composition of a person’s ear

Exceptional on the structure of the body – the organ of hearing. Despite the apparent simplicity, this area has a complex structure. The main function of the body – difference signals, noises, tones and speech, their conversion and the increase or decrease.

For the maintenance of all tasks in the ear respond to the following items:

  1. The outdoor part. The structure of this region includes the outer shell, which enters the auditory tube.
  2. Further is a drum region that separates the outer ear from the middle pane.
  3. The cavity behind the drum area called the middle ear which includes the auditory bones and Eustachian tube.
  4. Next is located in the interior region of the ear, which is considered one of the most intricate and complicated in the structure described body. The main task of this cavity — maintaining equilibrium.

The anatomy of the ear contains the following structural elements:

  • curl;
  • tragus – is a bulge on the outer part of the ear, located on the outer part;
  • pair on tragus — protivotumanok. It is located on the top of the lobe;
  • earlobe.
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The outer region

The external part of the ear that sees man, is called outer region. It consists of soft tissue and cartilaginous sheath.

Unfortunately, because of the soft structure of this region, the ear is easy to break.

This leads to significant pain and prolonged treatment.

Most of the broken cartilage and bone of the ear suffer little children and people who are professionally engaged in Boxing or martial arts.

In addition, the auricle is susceptible to many viral and infectious diseases. This occurs most often in the cold season, and frequent touching dirty hands to the organ of hearing.

For this reason, experts recommend every day to maintain hygiene and clean the ears every morning and evening.

Due to the outer area, the person has the ability to hear sounds. It is through the outer part of the auditory organ sound frequencies go into the brain.

Interestingly, in contrast to animals, human hearing is fixed and in addition to these functions has no additional features.

When entering frequencies in the outer ear, the decibels get on the auditory passage in the middle part. To protect and maintain the functioning of the middle ear area, it is covered with skin folds. This helps further protect the ears, and handle any audio frequency.

The human ear can detect sounds at various distances from one centimeter to twenty or thirty meters, depending on age.

To hear described sound vibrations outer ear helps the auditory tube, which at the end of the aisle is converted into bone tissue. In addition, the auditory tube is responsible for the operation of sulfur glands.

Sulfur is a slimy substance yellow shade to protect the ear from infections, bacteria, dust, foreign objects and ingress of small insects.

Commonly, the sulfur is eliminated from the body on their own. However, improper cleaning or lack of hygiene, is formed cerumen. Remedy tube is prohibited, as you can push it further along the auditory passage.

To eliminate this unpleasant problem, contact a specialist. He washed the ear, specialized tinctures. In the situation that a trip to a qualified doctor impossible, buy «Remo-wax» or «HHonors». These funds will delicately eliminate the earwax and cleanse the ear. However, the use of medications allowed with a small accumulation of sulfur.

The outer ear is transferred to the middle area. They are separated by the eardrum. After processing the sounds of this area, the sound goes into the middle part. For visualization see photos of the outer shell below.

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The structure of the outer region

Visually see the structure of the outer ear of the person described in the diagram below.

The auricle consists of twelve elements of different construction:

  • curl;
  • rook;
  • tubercle of Darwin;
  • the cavity of the ear;
  • proteomelab;
  • lobe;
  • leg curl;
  • the tragus;
  • bowl sinks;
  • the lower leg of protionamide;
  • triangular fossa;
  • the upper leg of protionamide.

The basis for the external ear includes elastic cartilage. The upper and outer edge of the ear is converted to curl. Paired organ of the helix is closer to the aisle. It hugs the outer hole and forms two tabs:

  1. Proteomelab to the rear.
  2. The trestle at the front.

The earlobe is the soft tissue that lacks bone and cartilage.

Darwin’s tubercle is pathological structure and is considered an anomaly of the body.

The structure of the middle ear human

The middle ear is behind the drum area and is considered the main structure of the organ of hearing. The volume of middle part is about one cubic centimeter.

The average region accounts for the temporal part of the head, which houses the following elements:

  1. The drum area.
  2. Auditory tube that combines the nasopharynx and the tympanic part.
  3. Next is the part of temporal bone called mastoid process. It is located behind the outer part of the auditory tube.

From the elements read more need to disassemble the structure of the drum parts, because in this region the main processing functions sound frequencies. So, the tympanic region is divided into three parts:

  1. To the tympanic membrane is adjacent to the hammer. Its function includes receiving sound waves and transmitting them to the next area.
  2. After the hammer is an anvil. The main function of this area – the initial processing of sounds and the direction of the stapes.
  3. Immediately before the internal region of the organ of hearing and after the hammer is the stapes. It processes the received sound and converts the cleaned signals on.

The main function of the ossicles is the conversion of signals, noise, low or high pass and transfer from the outer parts to the inner ear. In addition, the hammer, anvil, and stirrup are responsible for the following tasks:

  • keeping the tone of the drum region and support its functioning;
  • mitigation is too high sounds;
  • the increase in low sound waves.

Any trauma or complications of otitis media lead to dysfunction of the stapes, anvil and hammer. It can cause not only hearing loss, but the loss of sharpness of sounds forever.

It is important to understand that sharp sounds, such as explosions, can cause reflex contraction thereby harm the structure of the organ of hearing. This will lead to partial or complete loss of hearing.

The inner ear

The inner ear is one of the most complex component of the described entity. For complex structures, this area is often called the membranous labyrinth.

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The inner part is located in rocky region of the temporal bone and connects with the middle ear panels of different shapes.

In the structure of the inner ear of a person includes the following elements:

  • the threshold of the labyrinth;
  • snail;
  • the channels are semicircular in shape.

The latter element includes liquid forms of two types:

  1. Endolymph.
  2. The perilymph.

In addition, in the inner ear is the vestibular system. She is responsible for the function of equilibrium in space.

As mentioned above, the labyrinth is inside the bony skull.

The inner ear is separated from the brain space filled with a viscous fluid. She is responsible for conducting sounds.

In the same region is a snail.

The snail appears in the form of a spiral channel which is divided into two parts. This spiral channel responsible for converting sound vibrations.

Conclusion

After reviewing what the ear and its structure, it is important to monitor the daily health of the ears. It is important to support the immune system and at the slightest sign of the disease to consult a specialist.

Otherwise, the main function of the organ of hearing may be violated and lead to serious complications in the form of loss of sensitivity of the sounds and noises forever.

Remember that the ear must perform its functions smoothly. Inflammation of the ear involve serious consequences, and any disorders seriously affect a person’s life.