The nasal cavity of the person: structure and functions
What structure is and what is the function of the nasal cavity?
The nose is quite perfect and complex organ of the human senses. Conventionally, it is divided three major parts: external nose, nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. The visible part of the body is formed during 15 years of life and is often a cause of significant human emotions, not matching his ideas about beauty. Striving for the ideal, you should take into account that any operation in the nose can disrupt its structure and lead to many unpleasant consequences.
The nasal cavity is an anatomical formation, which originates in the respiratory system. It runs a number of processes that provide the moisturizing, cleaning and heating of inhaled air. In addition, it performs other vital functions due to its complex anatomy.
The structure of the nasal cavity
The nose cavity is divided by the partition plate into 2 approximately equal parts. The two halves are connected with the external environment through the external nose formed of bone and cartilage. Skeleton covers the muscle tissue and skin.
The partition wall has complex anatomy. In the area of the nose wings she starts moving membranous region, continues a small cartilage plate is irregular quadrilateral notified via your corners with the bones: nasal, ethmoid and Palatine.
The cartilage ends of the bone area formed in the fusion of the ridges of the upper jaw, the vomer, ethmoid, frontal, sphenoid bones.
The nasal cavity communicates with all of the paranasal sinuses through the channels.
The nasal cavity is limited to 3 walls:
- Top. It is called the arch of the nose. Formed by the sphenoid, the frontal, the ethmoid bone and the inner surface of the nasal bones.
- Lower. Called bone the sky, because it separates the nasal cavity from the oral. Formed in the merger process of maxilla horizontal plate of the Palatine bone. Pathology of this region are often the cause of defective conditions: cleft palate or cleft lip.
- Lateral. It is formed by the nasal, maxillary, sphenoid, Palatine, ethmoid and lacrimal bones.
On the lateral wall of the nasal cavity are 3 sinks. They have a form of plates and are arranged one above the other, as seen in the image below. The upper and medial shell are represented by processes of the ethmoid bone, the lower his self-education.
Nasal shell 3 form a pair of the nasal passages:
- The top is the smallest move at the rear of the nasal cavity, in contact with the procedure for palatinal ie palatal orifice.
- A middle course is the most wide and long. Formed not only the bone but also the soft spot of the mucous membrane. Through a Crescent slit of the medial stroke is communicated with the maxillary sinus. On the rear walls have a funnel-shaped extension through which passages communicate with the frontal sinuses.
- The lower course is limited to the bottom of the cavity and the bottom shell. In the area of his arch open hole nasolacrimal duct through it receives the liquid discharge from the ocular orbit space. This anatomical relationship leads to the fact that while crying into the nasal cavity strongly separated slime, and stand out in the cold tears from his eyes.
The area between the turbinates of the nose and the partition plate is called the common bow stroke.
The device of the nasal mucosa
Conventionally the nasal cavity is divided into 3 areas:
- The threshold is covered with flat epithelial cells (skin laid glands and hair follicles) into the mucosa. The latter contains the anatomical equipment to perform fully their functions.
- The respiratory region is the division of the mucous membrane, adapted to process the air entering the nasal cavity. He is at the middle and bottom of moves.
- The olfactory region is part of the mucous membrane, responsible for the odor perception. The Department is located at the top of the stroke.
The mucous membrane covering the ciliated epithelial cells with many microscopic cilia on their free edge. These cilia constantly carry out wave-like motion in the direction of exit of the nasal cavity. With their help, of it removes small particles of dust air.
The nasal mucosa covers the entire surface of the cavity, except vestibule and nasopharynx.
The wrapper contains secretory cells and glands. Their active work helps moisturize air entering the respiratory tract and its purification from impurities (secret envelops foreign particles to remove them later).
Shell enmeshed in a dense network of capillaries and small vessels forming a plexus in the lower and middle turbinates of the nose. Through a well-developed vascular bed occurs heated air. Also into the nasal cavity through the thin capillary walls act cells (leukocytes), providing the neutralization of bacterial and microbial components.
Functions of the nasal cavity
The structure and functions of human nasal cavities are interconnected. Due to its anatomical features it provides the functions:
- Respiratory. Air through the cavity gets into the respiratory tract and excreted from them. While it is cleansing, moisturizing and warming. Physiology of the breathing arranged in such a way that the volume inhaled through the nose the air exceeds the volume of inhalation through the mouth.
- Olfactory. Recognition of odors begins with the capture of the peripheral processes of the olfactory nerve, the smallest particles of odorous substances. Then, the information enters the brain, where the smell is analyzed and perceived.
- Resonator. The nasal cavity with the vocal cords, sinuses and the oral cavity provides formation of the individual voice sound (participates in the formation of sound resonance). During a cold your nose is stuffed up, so the human voice sounds different.
- Protective. The secretory cells of the epithelium secrete antibacterial substances (Mucins, lysozyme). These substances bind pathogenic particles, which are then (with ciliated epithelium) are removed from the cavity. The dense capillary network provides for the formation of the immune gates of the body (white blood cells capture and destroy bacteria, fungi, viruses). Sneezing is also protective in nature: it is a strong reflex exhalation due to irritation of the olfactory nerve coarse particles.
The nasal cavity is a complex anatomical education. In order to understand what is the function of the nasal cavity, it is necessary to know the peculiarities of its structure (mucous membranes, cartilage and bone of the skeleton). Being a entrance for the air on the way to the lungs of a person, she performs respiratory, protective, olfactory function, and is also involved in the formation of the voice.
Most people are concerned about the shape of the nose, and few people think about how it works. Because even small problems with the olfactory organ can affect the health of man, should be timely to take the necessary measures to eliminate them. It is time to treat all colds and not to forget about the everyday care.