The removal of the larynx for malignant tumors: postoperative course and consequences
The removal of the larynx for malignant tumors
The larynx is a complex part of the system of respiratory organs. Connecting the trachea and throat, she performs several important functions: zvukooperatora, protective, respiratory. Disease of the larynx is dangerous for the breathing process and restricts the ability to speak.
Malignant tumors in the larynx are striking mostly male population who are older. The main causes of the disease are bad habits (Smoking, alcoholism), atmospheric pollution and chronic respiratory disease. According to statistics, cancer of the larynx accounts for almost 5% of all malignancies occurring in humans.
Treatment of malignant tumors of the larynx
The disease at first develops almost asymptomatic. A small irritation in throat, sensation of a foreign object swallowing is safe in most patients. Most often turn to a specialist when the pain in my throat intensifies and the breath and the process of swallowing food becomes difficult. This situation makes it difficult to diagnose and the chances of successful treatment are reduced.
The main method of treatment of malignant tumors of the larynx is surgical intervention. Partial removal of the larynx for malignant tumors is possible only when the first stage of cancer. In other cases, requires complete removal of the organ and replacing it with silicone or metal tube, as seen in the photo below.
The removal of the larynx or part thereof, followed by treatment of chemotherapeutic methods and additional UV irradiation enhance the possibility of recovery.
The postoperative period
Procedure upon completion of the transaction include:
- removal from the respiratory system balances phlegm and blood with expectoration;
- hygiene of the patient.
The postoperative period after removal of the larynx for malignant tumors requires native human constant care and assistance. If no opportunity is constantly operated with a person, you need to seek the assistance of qualified caregivers with experience caring for the seriously ill.
The removal of phlegm and blood from the airway
The natural process of expectoration in the accumulation of fluids in the larynx and the respiratory organs may be difficult after surgery.
But to prevent the development of pathology in the bronchi and lungs it is necessary.
It is therefore necessary to constantly monitor the frequency of expectoration and thickness of sputum. If the liquid is viscous, it is necessary to conduct inhalation soda.
It is recommended to use in bed semi-sitting position. In this patient, easier to breathe and expectoration of the phlegm caught in the throat of the particles takes place without difficulty. If there is suspicion of a violation of blood circulation in the lungs and tissues, it requires frequent changes body position and standing with the help of nurses, to avoid the stagnation of liquids.
In most cases, it is necessary to conduct therapy with antibiotics from the penicillin category. This significantly reduces the risk of developing infectious and inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract in the postoperative period. Until complete recovery and normalization of power required intravenous injection of 40% glucose in the amount of 20ml, in conjunction with 15mg of insulin to promote absorption.
With a weakened condition of the patient and a large blood loss is recommended regular blood transfusion.
Hygiene of the patient
Care breathing tube in the postoperative period is the irrigation of the internal surfaces of oil at least after every couple of hours. This will prevent the formation of scabs on it and will not create problems while breathing. It is recommended to apply before the tracheotomy tube a damp cloth. This reduces the risk of growths inside of her.
Regular hygiene treatments at the incision site of tissue necessary for the prevention of purulent formations. In the normal course of healing, the stitches around the tracheostomy removed after 6 days, skin and no later than 8.
Attention! If there is any suspicion of accumulation of pus, it is necessary to loosen or remove the sutures and enter the pipe to drain. In any case, you cannot do it yourself. The procedure should be performed by a medical professional.
Nutrition in the postoperative period is carried out using a probe which is installed to the esophagus. In most clinics, the term of this feeding is about a month. Modern methods postoperative recovery of the patients with a remote larynx expedite the transfer to normal power.
In some specialized medical institutions food liquid products begin after removal of skin stitches.
According to the developers of this method of recovery, this reduces the risk of abnormalities and complications.
Besides the reduction of the term nutrition through a tube allows you to start the recovery process speech much earlier.
Need a meal in liquid form limits the set of products that can be included into the power system. Therefore, it is recommended to feed patient small portions, but often.
A sample diet should consist of:
- not less than 1 litre rich chicken broth with the addition of grated boiled vegetables;
- about 2 liters milk mixture or milk of high fat content;
- 50 grams of high quality butter oil;
- 50-60 grams of sugar.
It is recommended to include at least half a dozen beaten eggs. Gradually in the diet can add liquid milk semolina or a special blend for the nutrition of adult patients. On the second and third month of rehabilitation, add ground breadcrumbs, throwing them in the broth.
The consequences of the removal of the larynx
A fever the next day after the surgery natural. But if normalization does not occur, there is a suspicion of inflammatory process in the respiratory organs. In this case, an additional examination of the operated region. The development of inflammation complicates the process of regeneration and restoration of function of the larynx.
Among the possible complications after surgery are also observed:
- excessive swelling;
- shortness of breath;
- blood clots;
- aphonia (the inability to spoken language);
- damage to the esophagus or the trachea;
- the recurrence of the disease.
The most unpleasant consequence of the complete removal of the larynx for malignant tumors is the loss of the ability to speak. This limits the ability of the person and leads to disability.
Prevention of cancer of the throat
The main factor influencing the development of malignancies in the larynx and respiratory tract is excessive Smoking and alcohol. Therefore, it is necessary to get rid of these bad habits as early as possible.
Healthy lifestyle, balanced diet and physical activity contribute greatly to the prevention of most respiratory diseases and cancer including.
Timely treatment of inflammatory processes in the throat is another factor that reduces the risk of tumors. At the slightest negative manifestations in the throat, whether it is often a tedious irritation or cough, you must consult a doctor. Early diagnosis and treatment can preserve health.