The sialadenitis of the parotid gland — symptoms and treatment

How to treat sialadenitis of the parotid gland?

Sometimes a person may feel pain and swelling near your ear or under the jaw. Such symptoms speak about various ailments, and one of them is the sialadenitis. The disease mutates and affects all age groups starting from a child and ending with adults.

To identify the disease can only be a doctor, alone is not worth it to put a diagnosis and begin treatment, as this often leads to complications.

Reasons

The sialadenitis is the inflammation of the parotid gland. Pathology occurs for two main reasons:

  1. Epidemic inflammatory process.
  2. Non-epidemic inflammatory process.

Under epidemic inflammation means the occurrence of disease from a viral infection. This disease, like mumps (mumps), is transmitted by airborne droplets.

Non-epidemic inflammation occurs from blockage of a salivary duct. This may be due to:

  • mechanical damage of the salivary duct;
  • the presence of foreign bodies;
  • sialolithiasis (clonakenny disease);
  • after operations in this area;
  • diseases such as typhus, influenza, encephalitis;
  • poor hygiene of the oral cavity.

Attention! In order for treatment to be effective, it is very important to find out the cause of a disease.

Symptoms

The sialadenitis of the parotid gland, regardless of type, has common symptoms. To begin the right treatment, the doctor needs to establish the correct diagnosis, without symptoms, which tells the patient nothing.

It should be noted that more efficient and faster you can cure the disease at an early stage, therefore, after the detection of the first symptoms of sialadenitis, you should immediately go to the hospital for skilled help.

Most often, patients show:

  • pain when chewing and swallowing;
  • the inability to open the mouth widely;
  • sensation of dryness in the mouth;
  • shortness of breath;
  • the increase in body temperature;
  • redness in neck area;
  • swelling of the face, around the ear and neck;
  • unpleasant taste in the mouth;
  • change in taste;
  • malaise;
  • dense and enlarged education in the field of inflamed gland.

Important! If you experience these symptoms immediately contact your doctor.

Not always present in a patient all the symptoms, but that is no reason to let the disease go. Also sometimes the symptoms may subside, but that does not mean that the disease has passed by itself. This means that it has moved into a chronic form, and entered a period of remission.

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Acute sialadenitis

Parotid sialadenitis has a complex classification. In the most General case there are acute and chronic sialadenitis. The first kind can arise from various infectious diseases, after operations, due to poor nutrition. Often causes inflammation a pathogenetic factor, which reduces the current of saliva, and illness occurs.

Acute sialoadenitis in almost all cases, localized in the parotid region, and only in 15% of cases arise in the submandibular or sublingual inflammation.

If you look at the nature of the inflammatory process, the acute sialadenitis can be:

  • purulent;
  • serous;
  • gangrenous.

Considering etiology, the disease is:

  • infectious (bacterial, fungal and viral);
  • allergic (reaction to any allergen);
  • toxic (affected by chemical factors);
  • traumatic (after injury).

Localization of the disease, there are:

  • double-sided;
  • one-sided.

Depending on the prevalence of acute sialadenitis is divided into:

  • diffuse;
  • focal.

Chronic sialadenitis

Chronic sialadenitis may appear as an independent disease or can arise from systemic lesions of connective tissues.

Important! In chronic sialadenitis experience intermittent exacerbations, which pass into a state of remission.

There are three types of diseases:

  1. Parenchymal sialadenitis – inflammation of the glandular tissue, secretory cells, and excretory ducts. In this case there is dryness in the mouth, raised, tender glands.
  2. For interstitial sialadenitis effect of the hormonal, genetic and autoimmune factors. It all starts with the inflammation of the glandular tissue, which eventually grows and thickens.
  3. Calculous sialadenitis is formed due to the formation of stones in the salivary ducts. Stone, emerged in a particular location overrides the output of saliva, and thus this process triggers inflammation.
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Treatment

Not dangerous the disease itself is terrible its complications. Viral sialadenitis (mumps) may be complicated by meningitis, orchitis, mastitis, pancreatitis, inflammation of the inner and middle ear, diseases of the joints.

Attention! Only a doctor can correctly establish the diagnosis, to identify the sialadenitis of the parotid salivary glands, which treatment must begin immediately when the first symptoms.

The diagnosis can be established after the external examination, laboratory and instrumental studies. These include microbiological examination of secretions, biochemical and cytological studies, biopsy of the salivary glands, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ultrasound, sialography, sialoscintigraphy, thermography.

Treatment is based on strengthening of salivation, it promotes saliva in the salivary ducts. Such drugs include Pilocarpine solution. Also important is to stop inflammation.

Features. The acute form of cure is much easier than chronic.

Patients can register:

  • bed rest for weeks, sometimes two;
  • rinsing your mouth with special solutions that you can do yourself or buy in a drugstore ready;
  • proper nutrition, kynogon diet (need to avoid fatty foods to eat more dairy products, fruits and vegetables);
  • applying dry heat to the swelling;
  • Smoking cessation;
  • compresses (alcohol-camphor);
  • more drinking;
  • the glands self-massage or professional massage course;
  • physiotherapy (UHF, electrophoresis, galvanization, fluctuating);
  • a course of antibiotics, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and antihistamines.

Features. If the disease is infectious in nature, that the patient cannot appear in public places within ten days from the day he fell ill, as it is contagious.

When purulent sialadenitis often the doctor is forced to resort to surgical intervention. Skin or mucosa in the area of localization of pus is cut to give it a churn. After that, the patient’s condition improved, and he is on the mend.

Be sure to monitor hygiene: twice daily brushing teeth, flossing after eating and rinsing the mouth. If you feel pain, reduce it with massage and taking any analgesic. If the pain is very strong, then make novocaine blockade on Wisniewski.

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When calculous sialadenitis operation is done. Its purpose is to remove calculus and to remove purulent exudate. After the procedures are carried out control studies, if the stones were not all removed, you will have to resort to surgery again.

Saleprice (stones) in the salivary glands are removed in several ways, the most common are silentscope, lithotripsy, extirpation. All of these types of operations aimed at the destruction and the destruction of concrements.

If timely to seek help in the hospital and to adhere to all recommendations of the attending physician, the outcome is always positive.

Acute lymphadenitis is treated with antibiotics for 10-14 days. If the disease passed into a chronic form, resulting in the formation of stones, scarring, overgrowth ducts, necrosis of the gland or persistent violation of salivation, the improvement will have to wait only a month. If not, then do surgery, or completely change the tactics of treatment.

In almost all cases, the sialadenitis treated at home. Nonspecific parotitis see in a hospital. Patients who removed the stones from the salivary duct, also some time are being monitored.

If you regularly brush your teeth, go to preventive checkups to the dentist not to swallow foreign objects, timely vaccinated and eat well, it is possible to avoid the occurrence of this disease. Special attention should be paid to diet, which can not be broken, in any case.