The types and forms of sinusitis: classification of the causative agent and clinical manifestations

What are the different kinds of sinusitis?

Otolaryngologists there are several forms of the disease depending on the type of agent. Are the types of sinusitis which cannot be cured with medication. Such patients can help only surgical intervention.

At diagnosis, the specialists take into account the features of the disease.

Kinds of sinusitis depending on the type of agent

Let’s discuss the options in more detail.

Viral

The inflammatory process can begin of getting a virus on the mucous membranes of the sinuses. A person develops a viral sinusitis, which affects the respiratory tract. From the nose begins to stand out mucus mixed with blood and pus. In the absence of timely treatment can cause serious complications.

Bacterial

The cause of the disease can be a bacterial infection. The danger to humans staphylococci, streptococci and pneumococci.

Pathogens actively multiply in the sinuses.

The person begins to experience weakness in the body and headache. Patients suffer bacterial form of sinusitis. This is due to the fact that people have fever, pain and deprive people of the opportunity to lead a full life.

To identify the type of pathogen in the course of inspection takes the samples of mucus, which is secreted from the nose of the patient. After receiving the results, the audiologist prescribes the medication.

The source of infection can be aching tooth. Bacteria from inflammation get into the sinuses and the man begins sinusitis. If you suspect a tooth infection, you need to pass x-rays, MRI or ultrasound.

Fungal

By reducing the immunity in the patient begin to multiply fungi.

Patient inflammation, swollen mucous membranes complicate the breathing.

The defeat of the mucous membranes of the fungi is accompanied by dark nasal discharge. The disease can cause antibiotics.

Patients are prescribed anti-fungal medication. In particularly difficult cases may require surgical intervention.

Traumatic

To provoke an inflammatory process in the nasopharynx may cause serious trauma to the skull. After a strong blow most often damaged by nasal septum. The maxillary sinuses are formed blood clots, which breed bacteria. Suppuration may affect the upper jaw of the victim.

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Allergic

Cause of pathology can be a strong allergen that causes swelling of the mucous membrane.

Man begins to complain of itching in the nose, the formation of profuse discharge from the nose.

When injected into the nose of pollen or dust particles in man begins coughing. To treat allergic rhinitis with antibiotics does not make sense. You must first determine the cause of allergic reactions.

As a therapy it is recommended to rinse sinuses with sea salt. Relieve Allergy symptoms by taking antihistamines.

Aeroginosa

Pressure surges have a negative impact on the state of the mucous membranes. The situation is exacerbated by recent colds. The person displays symptoms of sinusitis.

Classification of the disease based on clinical manifestations

When choosing a method of treatment specialists take into account the nature of the disease. There are following types of sinusitis.

Catarrhal

Catarrhal runny nose is accompanied by swelling of the mucous nasopharynx. From the nose of the patient produces a large quantity of transparent mucus. The disease usually occurs fairly rapidly.

Purulent

A symptom of purulent forms of the disease is an inflammatory process. Sinuses patient breed harmful bacteria.

The patient there is a thickening of the mucous membranes, visibly expands blood vessels.

Recognize the pathology can be a thick discharge which emanates an unpleasant smell.

The person experiences painful sensations in the nose. The accumulation of pus leads to the appearance of crusts, which partially block the nasal passages.

Serous

The hallmark of serous sinusitis is the mucus has a watery consistency. The disease is easiest to treat at an early stage.

Hyperplastic

Hyperplastic form is reminiscent of purulent sinusitis. The difference is that in humans there is a strong swelling. The expansion of the mucous membranes leads to a reduction of space in the sinuses. Hyperplastic sinusitis easily becomes chronic.

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Atrophic

Atrophic form is accompanied by disruption of glands of the mucous membranes of the nose. The lack of secretions causing dryness of the nasopharynx. Some patients reveal mixed forms of sinusitis.

Polypoid

Define polypoid sinusitis is possible during diagnosis. The patient formed the polyp that almost completely block the nasal passages. A person loses the ability to breathe through the nose.

Features of acute and chronic sinusitis

The disease can occur in both acute and in the chronic form.

Acute sinusitis is characterized by the following symptoms:

  • the temperature rises;
  • swollen face and eyelids;
  • difficulty breathing;
  • there is pain in the forehead and the nose;
  • patients complain of profuse discharge from the nose;
  • there is a tearing.

In the acute form of sinusitis is prohibited to warm up the nasal area. Doctors recommend taking anti-inflammatory drugs. To facilitate the patient’s condition by lavage with a special solution.

Patients suffering from chronic rhinitis, complain of constant fatigue. They reduced efficiency and there is a headache. Inflammation continues for more than 2 months and can cause various complications.

Factor localization

In some patients, the sinus extends only on one side of the nose. Distinguish left and right form of the disease. With bilateral sinusitis affects all the sinuses.

What is the difference of productive and exudative forms of sinusitis?

Classification of sinusitis depends on the effects on the mucosa. A symptom of exudative sinusitis is an active change in the tissues of the nasopharynx. Patients complain of profuse discharge from the nose. The consistency of the mucus depends on the type of disease.

Exudative sinusitis can be divided into catarrhal and purulent. To facilitate breathing of the patient is recommended to wash nasal passages and make vasoconstrictors.

The productive form of the disease is not limited to inflammation. A characteristic symptom of this disease is degeneration of the tissue. In polypous sinusitis establish special education – polyps.

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They block access to oxygen. Patients with productive form of sinusitis’t smell. They experience difficulty when swallowing.

Enlarged polyps can be identified during the passage of x-rays. Conservative treatment of such patients is not going to help. Patients immediately sent to surgery.

Conclusion

Classification of sinusitis helps physicians to make a correct diagnosis. Depends on the choice of treatment.

The patient is sent for tests to determine the cause of the disease.

Most often sinusitis are caused by viruses and bacteria. The patient inflamed nasal passages, swollen mucous membranes of the nasopharynx.

To destroy the infection, the patient is prescribed antibiotics, which are designed to combat harmful bacteria.

Reduced immunity can cause activation of fungi that thrive in the body of the patient. In case of detection of polyps, the patient needs surgery.

The disease can occur in an acute form. The patient appear copious nasal discharge and fever. In the absence of proper treatment, the disease becomes chronic.

In some people the disease affects only one side of the nose. This form of the disease called unilateral. With bilateral sinusitis inflammation reveal both sinuses.

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