A sprained ankle: treatment and recovery
The clinical picture and treatment for sprains of the ankle joint
The ankle allows a person to freely move his foot, it is easy to change its position and to adapt, for example, under the terrain, not to get more injuries.
Joint is circled by three groups of ligaments:
- Calcaneal-fibular. Refers to the outer surface. Together with her joint protects talofibular. They hold from displacement of the talus;
- Deltoid. Passes through the inner side and consists of a superficial and deep layer, protecting the talus and navicular bones;
- A group of ligaments, which consists of the tibiofibular syndesmosis, front and rear transverse tibiofibular ligament.
The mechanism of injury
Sprain is the most common injury. What explains this regularity? To blame the feature of the structure of the ankle, which acts as the extensor and flexor function. This may explain its instability.
Apart from such complex functions as the fulfillment of rotations of the foot in different directions on the Shin pressure the whole mass of the body. Ankle ligament not only hold together the bones spikes, but able to save them from more serious damage.
Them this happens in cases when they are unable for a short period of time to cope with the intense quantity of movement.
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To facilitate the emergence of such injuries may not only a drastic change elevation, excessive loads on the foot, but many other reasons.
For example, some groups of people are predisposed to the appearance of the injury. This could include:
- Features of the structure of the foot, when her arch is high;
- Spinaroonie type to the ankle, with the fingers directed inward;
- The muscle disorder. For example, weakening them with a lack of physical activity;
- Disturbed nerve function motor activity, which increased the chance to tuck the foot;
- The difference in length of lower extremities;
- The softening of the ligaments, causing them to become weaker. But thanks to them, the bones are held together;
- Frequent stretching.
Many people have the ability to sprain the ankle is much higher than others. How to explain such a feature?
- First, the presence of certain diseases that can significantly impair the ability of the ligaments to stabilize the joint.
- Second, it is associated with excessive load on them. You can even select a group that will include some people. The risk of sprains, they have to be very large.
It includes athletes (especially skiers, runners, figure skaters), overweight people, as well as lovers of high heels too.
Symptoms that indicate tensile
If minor damage is not all consider it necessary to see a doctor, but later, when the manifestation of a more bright symptoms, skilled care may be needed.
The signs of a sprain ankle include the following:
- Pain. It is enhanced if you try to use a limb, lean on it or touch it. This is due to the presence of a huge number of nerve endings, penetrating the ligament through. In many cases, tensile pain syndrome will increase if you take no action.
- Hematoma. Its color gradually changes from light red to bluish in color. If you did not initially apply a compress with ice to the ankle, the bruise can be very intense. Gradual getting rid of it will happen naturally, but to speed this up you can use ointments;
- Swelling. It also can be reduced with a cold compress. Manifestation of swelling will depend on how extensive was the tension;
- Temperature. Its increase can occur both locally and throughout the body. Due to growth the gradual development in the damaged ligament of the inflammatory process, or simply a reaction to the collapse of the leaked blood;
- Hyperemia. Strong increase in blood flow makes the bruising more extensive, there is redness, swelling compounded.
It is very important even to try to distinguish between a sprain ankle from their job, which is a more serious injury and often requires surgery.
For detachment more characteristic of the presence of click to move the foot, intense pain. The limb is completely immobilized during the stretching, but tearing of the ligaments usually she moves with unnatural amplitude.
The degree of stretching
Characterized by the fact that such damage can be assigned its own category of severity. They can be divided into three degrees.
- The first is characterized by the rupture of a small number of individual fibres of the ligament. Movement of a limb in this case can be carried out with caution, and the pain is not so strongly expressed.
- Second degree — a tear of a ligament, by which greatly hampered the ability to move the foot. In addition to the swelling and pain of the person while still disabled, so as to heal such injuries will take time.
- The third stage of the main fiber bundles are damaged. This injury is also called a complete transversal. Because of the very high pain syndrome the foot is fully obezbijede condition. In the long term lose the function of limbs that in the future may adversely affect the joint, making it unstable position.
The diagnostic process
Diagnosis starts with a face-to-face doctor’s examination and conducting their surveys. This is typically followed by the appointment of radiography. This eliminates the possibility of more dangerous injuries of the ankle.
In the first place when you sprain the ankle should be injured extremity to take off our shoes to give the foot a more comfortable position. The best solution is to lay her on the hill and bandage.
Tightening too tight is not recommended, so as not to cause unnecessary pain. By the way, for its reduction, use a cold compress. It will also help to reduce the appearance of bruising and swelling.
After the events the patient should be transported to the clinic for a more thorough inspection, as it is important to exclude the possibility of more serious damage.
The types of medical procedures in trauma
Measures tensile forefoot provide only a conservative type of treatment.
Surgery is required only in the presence of ruptured ligaments of the foot. But in addition to stimulation methods, which are recommended by doctors, you can also use some methods to restore functionality of the limb, taken from folk medicine.
Treatment for sprains of the ankle joint involves the creation of measures for the preservation of complete rest of the damaged foot.
For immobilization of the limb using several types of bandage. Among them are the following:
- «Eight». Bandage type «sock» for fixation of the foot in one position;
- The orthosis. It is used as a way to stop. Stop with the tight to the device;
- Plaster bandage. It is considered the most common method of immobilization of the foot. Successfully replaced orthosis;
- An elastic bandage. Helps to relieve swelling and improves the action of the ointment and can not irritate the skin. Considered easy method of fixation. Its characteristic feature is the availability of warm joint.
Besides fixing the ankle used and other methods aimed at the speedy recovery of the foot:
- Anesthesia. Analgesics can be prescribed, if the pain is too strong. In the future, the tablet is completely discarded;
- Ointment. Used topically and can fully replace painkillers. For sprains of the ankle joint use of the ointment with a cooling effect, but the warming will be aimed at accelerating blood circulation in the injured area. In addition to these effects, they also reduce the severity of the swelling and helps fight inflammation;
- The drugs needed to conduct anti-inflammatory therapy. For example, those that contain Diclofenac;
- The self-massage. Because the damage is not too great, these activities can be carried out independently. The most effective this measure will be, if you conduct a massage with ointments.
- LFK. As only pain will be less and the movement of the foot will be possible to start performing exercises. They will quickly restore stretched muscle and lead her to the tone.
Treatment with folk remedies
Some measures borrowed from folk medicine, extra help to cope with the symptoms of tension and allow faster to get to his feet.
We recommend the use of compresses of milk. First it should be heated.
But in the presence of a hematoma warm compresses should not be used at all!
- You can cook a lot of onion, mix it with coarse salt and put it on the wound, covered with gauze previously.This will help to disinfect the damaged and out excess water, which will perfectly allow to cope with excessive swelling.
- In the same way can be applied to the slurry obtained from the pre-grated raw potatoes.
- It will also help to provide additional anti-inflammatory effect of decoction of oak bark, chamomile, St. John’s wort. Using them you can do warm compresses, or just add their extracts to the bathroom.
As soon as the treatment of sprains of the ankle joint, carried out with the help of ointments and recipes of traditional medicine is over, you can proceed with the recovery action of the joint and the development of its former elasticity.
This can be done with the help of self-massage and exercise therapy. Actively you can use physiotherapy: Phono and electrophoresis, UHF, mud or paraffin treatment.
With intensive rehabilitation, lameness and pain usually subside after two and a half weeks.
In most cases, stretching is completely fused. Elasticity is due to the undamaged areas of the joint ligaments.
The effects of stretching
As a rule, no serious consequences, a sprain of the ankle joint for a not attracted to if treatment was initiated in a timely manner.
If a visit to the doctor are not followed, it is highly probable that self-diagnosis is incorrect. Ordinary sprain of the ankle can hide much more serious problems.
Moreover, if treatment is not undertaken, it would further lead to instability. In the future it may cause new injuries to the ankle.