A tumor of bone chondrosarcoma: symptoms, treatment, survival

Bone cancer chondrosarcoma: survival depends on the stage of the tumor

Bone cancer – a General definition for a number of diseases with benign and malignant tumors.

Depending on the type of tumor, stage of the disease, the symptoms can be very mild and the patient does not pay attention to them.

Bone lesions develops in two ways: directly from bone, or by metastasis from other organs.

Chondrosarcoma what is it?

With primary cancer, the cells divide randomly and chaotically and begin to grow where they should not be in a healthy bone tissue. One of the common varieties of cancer is chondrosarcoma – a malignant neoplasm of cartilage.

It is the second most common neoplastic disease of the skeleton, which accounts for about 20% of the total number of sarcomas. Manifested in the form of dense growth adjacent to the outer layer of the bone and is able to germinate at different depths.

Can develop in any bone, but most concentrated in the pelvic and shoulder girdle, ribs, and rarely in the extremities and spine.

Most often the tumor is diagnosed in people middle-aged and elderly from 30 to 60 years, and mainly the strong half of women suffer twice as often. According to statistics, the earliest case of the disease was recorded in 6 years, and the latest 90.

Causes and risk factors

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The reason of development of primary malignant tumors of cartilage are still not revealed.

There are several factors that contribute to the malignancy of chondroma:

  • chondromatous skeletal syndrome, Ollie – Maffuci;

  • hereditary factor, especially when chondrodysplasia with angiomatosis;
  • malignant neoplasms in kidney disease Wilms;
  • abnormal growth and impairment of structure of bone – Paget’s disease;
  • incorrect or late treatment is started, for example, only partial removal of bone and cartilaginous exostosis.

Secondary tumors arise as a result of affected areas in osteochondromatosis, solitary osteochondroma, deforming osteodystrophies, enchondroma and chondroma.

The extent of the malignant process

The chondrosarcoma klassificeret for the three degrees of malignancy, reveal that during the histological examination:

  1. I degree is characterized by the presence of condiiton with small dense nuclei, not exceeding 8 mm in diameter. Multinucleated cells are almost absent, mitotic figures are absent;
  2. Grade II – extracellular matrix predominantly myxoid cells significantly more than the I degree. Especially a large number of cells accumulated in the peripheral division of the slices. Mitotic figures are rare, the nucleus of chondrocytes has increased, there are areas of necrosis (destruction).
  3. III degree – the intercellular substance almost everywhere myxoid. The cells are arranged in groups or strands and have an irregular shape. There are many extensive necrotic areas. Core 5-10 times higher than the healthy counterpart.

For a full understanding of what stage of the disease studied several tumor pieces and slices. Most malignancies detected in hemorrhagic and soft myxoid areas.

That indicates the likelihood of tumor development?

The first symptoms of chondrosarcoma show up later. The fact that the latent period of the degeneration of benign tumors into malignant ones can last several years and the patient goes to the doctor when there was a persistent pain syndrome, and the tumor has grown considerably in size.

Metastasis usually occurs through hematogenous (via the bed of blood) in the liver, brain, lungs, regional lymph nodes.

The main symptoms of the disease include:

  • severe pain radiating to the hip or the back (the tumor compresses the sciatic nerve);
  • unilateral swelling over the site of the lesion;
  • limitation of motion of the joint;
  • difficulty in urination (if the growth presses on the bladder).

Diagnostic methods

The leading method of diagnosis is an x-ray. In the case of chondrosarcoma, pictures detected areas of destruction of irregular shape contrasting on the background of soft tissues.

Experts distinguish peripheral and Central lesions (on the surface or inside the bone).

When the peripheral chondrosarcoma in the place where the tumor is adjacent to bone, revealing the eroded surface of the cortical layer.

At the edges of tumors tristie visible deposits of calcium salts in the hearth is also present calcification, resulting in a mottle image.

If the tumor is detected in the long bones, in the picture the lesions are also highlighted with splashes of speckled calcification. The lesions appear in the form of a spindle-shaped thickening.

Often diagnose Central hidrocarbon bones, peripheral malignant tumors are usually secondary.

To confirm the diagnosis and check the spread of the tumor to other parts of the body, specialists prescribe more serious clinical examination:

  • MRI or CT of the affected bone;
  • chest x-ray;
  • MRI of the brain;
  • open or penetrating needle biopsy of the bone;
  • bone scan – bone scanning system, which identifies any abnormal symptoms.

Therapy: challenges and opportunities

The type of treatment of bone cancer depends on many factors: the degree of development of the tumor, its location, distribution to other organs, size and overall health of the patient.

Therapy is prescribed only after all the diagnostic tests and determination of degree of differentiation.

The main treatment is surgery with complete resection of the tumor and part of healthy tissue. If the disease has moved into phase III, the possible amputation of a limb.

In some cases, surgery is absolutely contraindicated, then assigned to radiotherapy, chemotherapy and palliative therapy.

However, the majority of chondrosarcomas do not respond to such treatment, so surgical intervention remains the most effective.

Some patients require a comprehensive treatment that combines several techniques at the same time:

  • radiosurgical system CyberKnife;
  • chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

Tumors I and II degree, favorably cured with radiosurgery system CyberKnife for 1 to 5 sessions. The advantages of this method are obvious – no need to carry out the operation, which leads to disability of the patient.

In the last stages the treatment is considered palliative.

The prognosis of survival of the patient

Successful treatment and recovery depends entirely on the size and biological activity of the tumor and the degree of development of the disease.

Tumors stage I do not give metastases in other organs, and dissemination of the focus of the III degree is almost 70%.

After surgery, the survival of patients:

  • with I stage of disease is about 90%;
  • at the II degree – up to 60%;
  • and III is just 30%.

Preventive measures

Specific prevention of this disease does not yet exist, as it does not identify the causes of the emergence and further development of malignant tumors.

Experts advise representatives of the area at risk to undergo an annual medical examination, at the slightest sign of an ailment to seek help in medical institutions, to conduct a healthy way of life.

Patients who have undergone the therapy, within two years it is recommended to undergo control examinations by an oncologist every three months.

In the fifth year of life after treatment inspections are conducted every six months, then annually.

Early detection of illness and timely treatment reduces the risk of development of malignant tumors. In the early stages of detection of neoplasms of the possibility of complete recovery. In the case when the disease is far advanced, life expectancy is significantly reduced.

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