Acute and chronic tenosynovitis: symptoms and treatment of this disease
Tenosynovitis: a dangerous disease with unpredictable consequences
Tenosynovitis is considered to be quite dangerous illness that can lead to necrosis of the tendon and spread of the inflammatory process throughout the body.
The appearance of this pathology lead to all sorts of damage.
Sometimes the disease develops as a result of increased stress on the tendon. In any case, if you experience symptoms of inflammation of tendons, you should immediately consult a doctor who will select effective therapy.
Who is at risk?
By this term is understood the inflammatory process, which occurs in the synovial membrane of the tendon of the muscle. This phenomenon occurs quite often.
In particular, he is exposed to people who by the nature of its activities forced to repeat many times the same type of motion to knitting, typing on the keyboard, playing musical instruments.
In addition, the appearance of the disease can result in traumatic injuries.
According to statistics, the defeat of the flexor tendons of the limbs is about 32 %, while the extensor muscles are damaged only in 12 % of cases.
Tenosynovitis often leads to serious complications, since it can provoke the rapid spread of the inflammatory process throughout the body.
The cause of the inflammation
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A major factor in the development of nonspecific tenosynovitis are minor damage to the synovial membrane.
They can appear as a result of stretching of muscular tissue, prolonged exertions, constant exposure to low temperature and fatigue.
The infectious form of the disease is infection by pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, non-specific infection may be a consequence of osteomyelitis panaritium, ulcers, cracking of the skin.
With the development of specific process, the causative agents of syphilis or tuberculosis in the synovial penetrate the vagina with the flow of blood.
Sometimes the disease develops as a result of the reactive inflammatory process in arthritis or rheumatism, which are of infectious origin.
Classification by location of inflammation
Depending on the localization of the pathological process is isolated tenosynovitis:
- Hands. Often, because the hand has a maximum load. They are more exposed to injuries and hypothermia.
- Brush. This kind of disease is the most common process, and it usually occurs in musicians, stenographers, etc. Usually, the pathology is non-infectious in origin and is directly connected with professional activity.
- Of the forearm. This area of the body usually suffers from the krepitiruyuschie tenosynovitis. The disease begins with a feeling of aching and fatigue of the hands. Also, there may be numbness, burning, tingling. In this case, tenosynovitis is the result of long run repetitive motion.
- Thumb (de quervain disease). The correct diagnosis can be difficult. The doctor usually focuses on inspection and palpation of the affected area. Tenosynovitis of the finger quite often develops due to infection purulent infection.
- Wrist. This type of pathology is localized on the back of the bunch. The process affects the tendon responsible for straightening out the big toe. The main symptom is the appearance of pain in this place.
- Of the shoulder joint. In this scenario, you experience dull pain in the shoulder area. Most often this disease is diagnosed carpenters, polishers, blacksmiths. When muscle tension is discomfort is magnified, appears swelling.
- Of the elbow joint. This disease is diagnosed quite rare and is the result of a traumatic injury. Accompanied by pain in the affected areas, a scratch, a lump.
- Of the foot. A symptom of this pathology is pain in the area of the tendons, which increase during motion. Also there is swelling and redness. When the infectious form of the disease the temperature rises and there is a General deterioration.
- Of the ankle joint. This pathology is characteristic for those people who are constantly faced with the increased loads on the legs. These include athletes, dancers, etc. Such tenosynovitis may be the result of congenital abnormalities of the foot.
- Of the knee joint. This kind of disease develops as a result of prolonged stress on the joint, abnormalities in the structure of the body, the posture. Sometimes provoke the development of infection.
- Hips. To the development of this pathology cause damage and overload of muscles and tendons. Lose thigh is most common in women.
Symptoms of pathology
Tenosynovitis can occur in acute or chronic form, for each of these diseases are characterized by certain symptoms.
Signs of acute form of the disease
In case of acute severe painful swelling and swelling in the affected area. Movements are disrupted, and accompanied by the crunch. The acute process is usually localized in the sheaths of the tendons of the feet and hands. Sometimes it affects the fingers.
In acute tenosynovitis infectious origin is localized swelling in the Shin and forearm. When purulent process increases body temperature, there chills.
In the synovial cavity is present in inflammatory fluid. Can also squeezed the blood vessels, leading to necrosis of the tendon.
Chronic tenosynovitis of the tendon is usually associated with human occupation and damage at first hand. In this disease there is pain when performing active movements, impaired mobility, there is a crunch.
Chronic process usually localized in the flexor and extensor muscles of the fingers.
How to stop the disease?
The choice of treatment is dependent on the nature of the flow of pathological process. Acute tenosynovitis requires the use of General and local remedies. If a person experiences severe pain, he performed the injection of novocaine.
If necessary, the doctor may put a cast on the affected limb.
When the infectious form of the disease in the first place, you must stop the pathological process. For this purpose, anti-bacterial preparations and preparations for strengthening the immune system.
In the acute form of infectious diseases shows the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
In the case of purulent process is required urgently to open and drain the vagina of the tendon to get rid of purulent exudate. It is also very important to provide complete rest and to securely lock the limb.
With the development of chronic process, apply a hot compresses and physical therapy. Equally useful and physical therapy. Your doctor may prescribe UHF, ultrasound, microwave therapy.
Greater risk of complications
Tenosynovitis can have different effects on the body.
With proper and timely treatment outcome pathology may be a temporary loss of motor activity of the affected area.
In the case of a running currents may develop a lifelong persistent contractures.
Sometimes the need for amputation.
In severe cases blood poisoning, which with high probability leads to death.
Therefore, it is important to diagnose and treat this disease.
To prevent the disease, you need to distribute the load. It is very important to avoid overwork, to exclude traumatic injuries and repetitive strain injury.
The appearance of the skin injuries or bone structures they need time to heal. It is important that the hygiene is very important to keep clean all parts of the body.
In addition, you should regularly perform physical exercises.
When the first symptoms of tenosynovitis is necessary to immediately consult a specialist.
If time does not start treatment of this disease, it can lead to extremely negative consequences, including blood poisoning.
It is therefore important time to diagnosis and to comply with all medical recommendations.