Acute low back pain
Acute low back pain is a condition that occurs due to the destruction of the intervertebral discs, causes the worsening of the clinical symptoms of degenerative disc disease of the cervical, thoracic or lumbar spine. The disease develops quite long, but is usually in the form of attacks. Reason for seeking medical help in 30% of cases is an aggravation of degenerative disc disease.
The intensity of symptoms can vary significantly in different patients. Patients may suffer from acute-onset pain, neurologic symptoms, seizures, etc. to Diagnose this disease is very difficult due to the wide variety of symptoms that it can manifest. In order to know what to do in this case and what treatment you need, you should understand the cause and mechanism of occurrence of these symptoms.
The causes of the disease
The main reasons that contribute to the development of osteochondrosis, are a common spinal injury, prolonged load, poor nutrition, stay in an awkward position, etc. Also on the development of osteochondrosis influenced by hormonal, vascular and metabolic disorders. The ability of the intervertebral disc to withstand the maximum load is greatest at a young age. Over time, the amount of fluid in the disc decreases and its tendency to damage increases.
What is the need of the intervertebral disc? Its main function is support and movement. Thanks to the intervertebral disk, we can perform large amplitude motion in the cervical and lumbar spine. To a lesser extent, these movements are expressed in the thoracic spine due to fixation of vertebrae with ribs. Their support function is that about 30-50 % of the load falls on the intervertebral discs.
It is located between two vertebrae as a special «pad» of cartilage that absorbs the load on the spine. It consists of an outer fibrous ring and an inner part the nucleus pulposus. Fibrous ring serves as a retainer and a protective layer for the kernel and performs basic cushioning function.
On the background of aging and the action of damaging factors on the fibrous ring cracks. They grow to a critical moment when the load becomes excessive, which leads to rupture of the outer shell and the protrusion of the nucleus pulposus. This herniation can compress blood vessels or the spinal nerves. Defect tissue causes the development of inflammation.
First, the load increases on the vertebrae of the cervical or lumbar spine that leads to bone spikes. The muscles in his back tense up, thus they take part of the burden on yourself. Thus, the body tries to compensate for excessive load on the spine. On the other hand, these changes lead to compression of nerves and blood vessels, which causes the main symptoms of osteoarthritis.
Despite all the protective mechanisms operating in our body compensatory function, and the opposing load, without proper treatment and lifestyle changes the spine continues to deteriorate, and the patient’s condition deteriorates.
Complaints and symptoms
During exacerbation of osteochondrosis of the cervical clinical picture depends on what changes occur in the spine. Symptoms cervical:
- pain syndrome;
- motor and sensory disorders;
- vertebral artery syndrome;
- cardiac syndrome.
Due to pathological changes in the cervical occurs local unilateral or bilateral acute paroxysmal pain type backache. When compression of the spinal nerve trunks appear radicular symptoms. Radicular symptoms also manifest as sharp burning pain, but its localization depends on the level of the lesion of the spine. When compression of the roots at the level of C5–C7 pain extends to the shoulder and forearm. The symptoms of motor and sensory disorders are characterized by a sense of tingling, a decrease in muscle strength until the complete immobility of the upper limbs.
Cervical degenerative disc disease can also lead to compression of the vertebral artery, which causes the symptoms characteristic of circulatory disorders of the brain. Patients complain of headache, loss of coordination and unsteadiness of gait. Cardiac syndrome occurs because the innervation of the heart, which is manifested by palpitations, pain in the chest and the occurrence of the extraordinary heartbeats (arrythmia).
The lesions of the thoracic occurs much less frequently. For thoracic degenerative disc disease is characterized by the following symptoms:
- burning, aching or dull pain that increases with coughing;
- reduced mobility in the affected segment;
- a decrease of tendon reflexes;
- pain in the navel;
- chills, peeling of the skin and decreased temperature in the feet.
The second most common after the neck is degenerative disc disease of the lumbar spine. Its main manifestation is considered acute back pain, which gives to the thigh. Sometimes it occurs only in the leg, which complicates the diagnosis. The pain symptoms when compression of the roots have different nature and severity. In some cases, this sensation of current flow in the region of the lumbar, and others have a sharp pain in the gluteal region. In severe cases symptoms of incontinence.
Exacerbation of all manifestations of lumbar osteochondrosis can occur after lifting heavy objects or sudden movements nerazmjernih.
How to stop the aggravation of degenerative disc disease
In any case, the attack of degenerative disc disease is accompanied by severe pain syndrome, so the treatment is primarily aimed at its elimination. Treatment of acute exacerbations of degenerative disc disease is carried out only in a hospital, that is in the hospital. This is due to the need for continuous monitoring of patients.
The office should be equipped with beds with orthopedic mattresses. If not, under the mattress, adding a shield. This is to prevent excessive movements in the spine during sleep.
|During exacerbation of cervical degenerative disc disease||Patient is shown wearing the special locking collar Trench.|
|With the defeat of the lumbar spine.||If you are experiencing such symptoms, the patient is forced to wear a corset chenault.|
|To reduce the pain.||Prescribe a course of painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs that are administered intramuscularly or topically. The best effect showed a local treatment when anesthetic is injected on the side of the affected segment (novocaine blockade).|
|Enhance the analgesic effect anti-inflammatory drugs.||But they are aimed at improving overall health in the long term, as their effect is observed after 10-14 days.|
|When cardiac syndrome.||Not assigned heart medication, because even the taking nitroglycerin will not have any positive effect as the main cause of this condition is a violation of the functioning of the nervous system. In this case the treatment is the use of medicines that improve its conductivity.|
|In addition to the main course, patients given oral vitamins.||Special role is played by vitamins of group B. They improve the activity of the nervous system.|
In rare cases, for the relief of osteoarthritis attack need prompt treatment. The main indications for surgery is the presence of a spinal hernia, which leads to compression of spinal nerves or the spinal cord. In this case, the most formidable manifestation is paralysis of the limbs. Surgical treatment is directed on removal of a hernia.
After the disappearance of symptoms of osteoarthritis, the patient is recommended physiotherapy, exercises in the pool. Absolutely contraindicated weight lifting, as this will lead to aggravation.