Ankle fracture: symptoms, treatment and rehabilitation
Rules of treatment and rehabilitation rehabilitation of broken ankle
According to statistics of doctors, of two hundred thousand people, about a hundred and ten treated with a fracture of the ankle joint. A large part of the fractures — 80%, make up the outer bone fractures, and only 20% are complex fractures with dislocation and subluxation. This injury is very painful and is characterized by complex recovery period.
The ankle joint is the movable part connecting the foot and the Shin. It takes more work than other joints. It accounts for seven times more weight, and therefore it is more prone to injury.
The ankle joint is the key to a healthy, straight posture and a beautiful gait.
The ankle joint is a hinge form. This implies that it performs the function of flexion and extension in the plane around the axis. It consists of tendons, ligaments and of course muscles. Muscles create movement of the joint.
Functions and anatomy of the joint
The joint consists of the following anatomical units:
- the rear talofibular ligament
- anterior talofibular ligament
- heel talofibular ligament.
The function of the joint
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The ankle has many functions, among which:
- with the ankle joint moves the foot in the directions of right-left, forward-backward;
- the joint performs a cushioning function – it softens the blow in a collision of the foot with the surface;
- The balancing feature. He retains the position of the body when the sloping surface.
The cause of trauma
Cause of fracture of the knee are physical strikes, and mechanical damage. This can often be a powerful blow near the joint, a fall during the moves or running.
Also causes such injury may be: jump from a height and landing on the heel strike with a heavy object in the area of ankle dislocation of foot, etc.
At risk of coming people Mature and elderly, and persons suffering from disorders in bone and joint tissues.
Classification of fractures
The fractures are:
- without moving the feet;
- dislocation of the foot inwards or outwards;
- indoor and rotten;
- fracture of the leg and foot with offset.
Open fractures occur only in twenty percent of cases.
The most common fractures closed form without displacement of the foot (less dangerous), there are more than eighty percent.
Open fractures in the joint often accompanied by pain shock to the victim.
In such cases, it is important to quickly stop the bleeding and anesthetize the injured place.
Fractures without displacement, the affected can make the change in the «normal injury» and not go to the doctor, hoping for a speedy recovery.
In such cases, the victim usually does not make the legs and does not cure it. This leads to often irreversible damage to health of the patient and increase the duration of treatment several times.
Characteristic symptoms and signs
What symptoms are the most common fracture of the ankle joint:
- severe swelling in the joint;
- the difficulty of carrying out any movement of the feet;
- often the inability to lean on the injured leg;
- ongoing pain in the joint;
As a rule, external examination of the damage, the correct diagnosis is difficult, as it does not give 50% of correct information. X-ray picture without treatment is impossible.
Upon receipt of the image, the doctor can clearly see the outlines of the ligaments. Thus, subsequently it is the guarantee that the doctor will make correct diagnosis and prescribe the correct treatment to the victim.
Complex medical procedures
The treatment begins with the provision of adequate first aid.
What kind of first aid you need to make to the victim?
First, in no case do not try to take the leg if you feel a sharp pain in the region of injury. To avoid all movements of the foot.
First aid for fracture of the ankle joint is the combination of all of the known bus. It will consist of conventional boards, which would codify the ankle joint. After, the victim must bring to the clinic.
If the pain is severe, and the victim is in shock, call the ambulance.
If the injured open fracture, then, first of all, you need to stop the bleeding. If bleeding is not strong enough to apply a bandage, if it is abundant – we need to get a tourniquet above the injury.
Clinical treatment procedure
Treatment for fracture of ankle is prescribed on the basis of the observed clinical picture. Thus, when the open fractures in the first place stop the bleeding and disinfect the site of fracture.
Further, if the fracture with displacement of the ankle – do reposition the bones. Often in this case means the output from your bones. After repositioning the bone, the doctor sews up the patient’s wound site, relieve the lower part.
The last turn to applied gypsum. The period is determined by the doctor.
If we are talking about a closed fracture, the treatment is more dynamic. If it is not a difficult trauma associated with displacement of the foot, a few months after getting a cast (about 2 months) the doctor takes a plaster cast and prescribes treatment to restore the tissue damaged area.
Injuries complicated by displacement, the victim goes in a cast up to 5 months. These cases have a longer rehabilitation period.
In the case where it is impossible to compare the bone tissue, surgery is needed. Then the doctor has to use metal plates and screws.
The remainder of the bone screw to the plate and produce . This fixation accompanies the patient for about a year. Accordingly, the patient should not carry any loads on the affected leg. Then at the end of the treatment the plate twisting, apply a bandage and permit a lighter load.
Before the surgery, the doctor needs to carefully plan everything. Starting from the correct positioning of the victim on the operating table with a free clamping feet. This method is used in fresh fractures. Required assisting a doctor.
The most difficult is the insertion site of the screw in bone marrow. This place is determined by the complexity of the bone structure. When the operation is control by the x-ray.
There are options with reaming of the canal and without. Without reaming decreases the factor of additional injuries.
The introduction of the screw without pre-drilling consists of the following stages:
- implantation of a locking member;
- back blocking (direction of the screw from the body);
- the compression of the bone;
- the proximal block (the direction of the body).
If you need further reduction, after the introduction of the adjusting screw. The bone is aligned and the possibility of shortage of length.
The option of drilling more common. During surgery to remove dead tissue. In other embodiments, the screw may serve as an implant and act as a shattered pieces of bone.
Since the period of tissue repair is as important as the treatment itself, the process of rehabilitation after fracture of the ankle with displacement or without it should be approached responsibly.
Often to restore the practice of physical therapy. At first, better to do it with an instructor, as it will help you to avoid unnecessary stress on the damaged leg. Recovery after fracture of the ankle occurs by gradual loads. Doctors often suggest rehabilitation massages the foot.
For the speedy recovery of the functions of the joint, patients are often prescribed these exercises:
- Squats with the ball. The patient clings to the wall physioball (large ball) of the foot should firmly press to the floor. Performing squats, you should try to reach the corner at ninety degrees at the knees.
- Charging with the trainer of balance. A healthy foot, the patient flexes the knee, and the patient stands on a swaying platform. Throws the ball and then catches it. The patient trains the muscles balanced.
- Jumping on the bad foot. On the surface, draw a white line, in order to assess the distance of the jump. Patient jumping on one leg on different sides of the line. He fulfills coordination of movement.
There are many types of similar chargers, but they are determined by the severity of injury, age, etc.
Complications that can cause injury
As you may have guessed, is not so smooth. There are also complications.
Often, they involve making the wrong diagnosis, delayed treatment.
In the case of open injuries or weakened bone tissue of the patient, may be an infection.
An improperly healed ankle, represents a huge danger. This can lead to deformation of the joints and cause osteoarthritis of the ankle joint.
Also may develop chronic lameness, swelling of the feet due to impaired circulation.
All of this can lead to disastrous consequences – disability.Because of this, doctors advise not to abandon the rehabilitation course and at the first sign of injury, contact the clinic that will allow You to avoid many complications.
How to avoid injury
The patient is the restoration of tissues, you should eat foods that contain a large amount of calcium. To gain strength you need to meet the high demand for vitamins. In your daily diet is to use such products:
Such a diet promotes rapid recovery of bone tissue. To increase silicon in the body need to eat raspberries, pears, turnips, radishes, currants and cauliflower.
You need to give preference to those additional vitamins like E, C, D. also Very important is vitamin D, because it is able to properly direct the exchange of calcium in the body.
Fracture of the ankle joint is a very complex injury, requiring increased attention from the patient and great skill from the doctor.
With the right treatment and successful rehabilitation, the injury can pass without a trace. It is therefore important not to neglect the advice of doctors to avoid complications.