Arm fracture: types, symptoms and treatment of how to develop arm?

Symptoms, treatment and recovery after a broken arm

Arm – the upper limb of the person – the main body of work, which is in the process of evolution, gained mobility, lost a support for the body.

The structure of the most important working tool is determined by its functions, as well as the peculiarities of its constituent tissues.

The skeleton hand is conventionally divided into the bones of the girdle of the upper limb that are paired bones of the clavicle and scapula, and the components of the free part of the upper limb – bones of the fingers, forearm and humerus.

List functions of skeleton of human hand is quite wide: dynamic, touch, static, performed with a brush, and connecting and movement related to the bones of the girdle of the upper limb, has endowed man with the ability to the different types of work.

The concept and causes of injury

Under the broken arm understand the trauma of the limb associated with the violation of the integrity of bone and the subsequent separation of its parts.

Among the most common factors causing the fracture

  • bad fall with support on hand;
  • excessive load on the limb, weakened by chronic disease (osteoporosis);
  • the impacts of different orientation and strength.

Types of fractures of the upper limb

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A hand injury klassificeret depending on the characteristics of the fracture, its location and severity.

Below are the main approaches for the definition of varieties of arm fracture:

  1. By type of injury: open (violation of the integrity of the skin at the site of injury with movement of a fragment of the bone to the outside); closed (characterized by the integrity of the skin).
  2. The number of damaged bones: isolated and multiple.
  3. Depending on the location of the line damage the bone: diaphyseal (break falls on the body of the bone); metaphyseal (line of fracture is located between the body and the end of the bone); intra-articular (fracture at the line of epiphyseal cartilage, accompanied by torn ligaments, damage to joints and displacement of bone fragments).
  4. The direction and the nature of the line of fracture: longitudinal (damaged surface parallel to the longitudinal axis of the bone); bintababy (line break resembles a spiral); and T-shaped; star-shaped; oblique and transverse (area damage angled and perpendicular to bone, respectively).
  5. In fact the presence/absence of offset. A broken arm offset can be primary (occurring at the time of injury to the bone due to applied forces) and secondary (formed under the action of attached to damaged bones and muscle tissues). The displacement of bone can be angular, rotational, length, or width of the limb.
  6. Depending on the possible displacement of bone fragments: stable (without displacements) and unstable (accompanied by a secondary displacement of the parts of the damaged bone).
  7. According to the presence/absence of complications. Complicated fractures can lead to bleeding, infection, fat embolism, blood poisoning.
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Special note arm injuries by type of bone.

Thus, there are fractures:

  1. Humerus – a long bone that is intermediate between the scapula and the elbow joint. In dependence on the location and characteristics of the structure of this part of skeleton isolated fractures of the upper, middle and lower part of the humerus.
  2. Clavicle is a curved tubular bones most often in the middle part (diaphysis) by reason of a fall or direct blow.
  3. The blades, which has a triangular, slightly curved shape and connects the clavicle and the humerus. This kind of fracture is extremely rare. This is due to the location of the bones found in the strata of muscles, shape and relative mobility.
  4. The elbow joint, formed by the ulnar, brachial and radial bones. The injury occurs because of weakness of the tendons and ligaments of the elbow in a fall on an outstretched hand or elbow.
  5. The radius, which is a paired bone in the part of the forearm. The most frequently diagnosed fracture of the lower third part.
  6. Wrist – parts of the skeleton of the upper limb located between the forearm and metacarpal bones and consists of eight bones. Fractures of this Department are classified according to the injured component of bone; phalanx of finger, with a fragile tubular structure.

This kind of injuries are quite common and are caused by a blow, a bad fall or excessive pressure on the bone.

The symptoms and signs of hand injury

For all types of fractures of the hand characterized by the following signs and symptoms:

  1. Pain arising in the place of bone fracture. Sometimes it may radiate to the adjacent region, for example, in the case of injury of the ulna the pain felt in the shoulder area and forearm. Pain syndrome is quite intense and increases with movement or additional stress on the limb.
  2. Bruising and swelling, which is especially pronounced at the turn of the wrist, elbow, fingers.
  3. Deformation of the damaged area, being diagnosed in cases with fractures with displacement. Often visualized with injuries of the forearm and humerus.
  4. Restriction of mobility of the nearby joints. So, in case of violation of the integrity of the radius, there will be limitation of movement in the wrist joint.
  5. The crunch of bone. The symptom is more characteristic for injuries of the olecranon, or upper arm.
  6. Cold limb. Indicates poor circulation because of damage to large arteries is very disturbing.
  7. Formation of hematoma – heavy bleeding into the subcutaneous tissues.
  8. Violation of the sensitivity of the hands and fingers, which occurs as a result of nerve damage at the time of fracture.
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Diagnostic approach

Some of these symptoms are not unique, they can manifest for sprains, injuries ligaments, bruises, therefore, for the diagnosis of fracture of the hand resorted to x-ray.

In rare cases, you may need a CT scan. Damage nerves needed examination with a neurologist.

First aid

In the case of suspected fracture of the first thing to do is immobilize the damaged area. With this aim overlaps with the bus out of scrap materials, for example, planks or sturdy twigs.

Design pribilovian to the damaged segment and ensure its immobility.

Open fractures of the hand are characterized by bleeding.

In this situation the wound should be treated with a disinfectant (brilliant green, iodine) and apply a pressure bandage/tourniquet.

Place the overlay defined based on the type of bleeding:

  • in the case of arterial (blood gushes, has a bright red color) – just above the injured area overlaps the wiring;
  • in venous (dark blood flowing as a steady stream) – applied compressive bandage.

The purpose of anesthesia, use any drug for this purpose (dipyrone, Ketorolac, aspirin, etc.). However, if you have not previously worked with the existing medication, it is better not to apply any measures and to wait for the ambulance.

Treatments

Most often in case of injury to the hands used conservative treatment, the essence of which is to immobilize the injured limb with the use of plaster – rigid fixation dressing.

In the case of a closed uncomplicated fracture is closed reposition bones – the return of the individual parts in the correct position.

In comminuted injuries resort to surgical methods of treatment. Produced reposition of fragments of bones by means of pins (plates). These titanium fixtures are usually extracted after a fusion, sometimes they are not removed in order to avoid probable complications.

Rehabilitation after injury

For the main phase of treatment of arm fracture followed by rehabilitation activities aimed at the restoration of motor activity of the affected limb.

After 2-3 days after injury, begin to take motion free from the gypsum areas of the hands.

3-10 days may be appointed interferential current therapy and ultraviolet irradiation of the healthy hand, thereby decreasing pain and swelling, improves circulation of blood in the place injury.

At the same time, the patient may proceed to isotonic stress of the muscles in the area of damage.

After 2 weeks are assigned:

  • magnetic therapy;
  • laser therapy;
  • UHF;
  • ultrasound;
  • electrophoresis of novocaine.

The variety and number of procedures are selected individually.

After the plaster is removed and the inflammation is mud therapy, pine and salt baths, as well as the active therapeutic exercise. All exercises are aimed at developing the damaged joint and needs to be regular (10-15 repetitions 3-4 times per day).

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Sets of exercises for each of the individual segments.

After 8-10 weeks you can start to lightly massage the damaged area, the intensity of which increases as the formation of good callus.

The final stage of restoration of function of the limb is occupational therapy – easy chores in the garden, crafts, etc.

The trauma

Swelling is one of the most common consequences of fracture of the limb, which is usually temporary.

In the case of a long period of swelling of the tissues need to go through special procedures, such as elektrofarez, phonophoresis, and ultraviolet radiation and electrical stimulation of muscles. It will not hurt as massage and physiotherapy.

Among the popular treatments swelling a poultice of sage and wrap the damaged area of blue clay.

Numbness in extremities after trauma is another consequence of the fracture. If any medical indication is missing, you can try getting rid of complications on its own.

This gentle massage helps, salt baths. Also it is necessary to establish power, to spend more time in the fresh air, take vitamin b 12 and to move actively. You may need a course of acupuncture.

Prognosis and duration of treatment

The total duration of treatment (including rehabilitation) for the various zones of the hands vary:

  1. Neck shoulder: treatment period — 3 months rehabilitation — 1 month.
  2. The body of the humerus: treatment period — 4, rehabilitation of 1.5.
  3. The bones of the forearm: treatment period — 2, rehabilitation 1.
  4. Radius: the duration of treatment is 1.5, rehabilitation of 1.5.
  5. Bones of the hand: treatment period — 2, rehabilitation of 1.5.
  6. Fingers: treatment period — 1, rehabilitation 1.

If there are contractures of the joints, the recovery period is much longer and will be about six months.

If the injury resulted in nerve damage or infection, full recovery may take several years.