Bone cancer: symptoms, manifestation, and treatment of tumors of the bone, photo
The diagnosis of bone cancer: how not to die and not become disabled?
Modern medicine works miracles – it is a laudatory statement finds its confirmation.
Medicines, modern equipment for conducting a series of procedures able to cure a person in a matter of days, rarely months.
But what to do with malignant tumors of bone? How to react to a diagnosis of bone cancer? To cry, to fight or to wait?
The concept and statistics
Bone cancer – cancer separate group of malignant tumors that can be formed from different tissues human bone: cartilage tissue, bone, periosteum, joints.
Modern medicine allows by some studies accurately identify the problem and establish the type of a malignant tumor. But to prevent their formation or to «perform a miracle».
According to statistics, bone cancer is diagnosed in 1.5% of all malignancies. Submitted more prone to cancer, young people under 30 years of age.
Its timely detection is required to undergo an annual examination as specialists. After a careful examination and subsequent treatment of the development of cancer of the bone in the early stages can be stopped.
Causes and risk factors
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Experts and scientists today cannot distinguish the causes which result in the formation of malignant tumors of the bone. Therefore, to prevent and how to protect against disease described will not work.
But with patients still did the work and experts could list the factors that significantly increase the probability of such manifestations.
Risk factors include:
- Genetic predisposition, which contributes to the formation of those tumors, «transmitted» from parents, for example, retinoblastoma.
- Paget’s disease – leads to disruption of the restoration of the previously damaged bone due to fracture and other situations. As a rule, disrupted recovery leads to bone deformation and disruption of the structure. Disease presents in law has the status of «precancerous condition». In the elderly.
- Excessive ionizing radiation. Non-ionizing radiation – the use of mobile phones and microwave ovens – do not provoke the formation of malignant tumors.
- Earlier trauma of the bone often leads to tumor growth.
- The probability of development of bone cancer after undergoing surgery for a bone marrow transplant.
- The risk factors include changes in the structure of DNA, which involve certain unpleasant consequences.
People who had surgery or was diagnosed with a disease, involving the formation of malignant tumors, should be especially attentive to their health and to be screened twice a year.
What are bone tumors
Bone cancer is divided into two kinds of cancer:
- Primary cancer in her features inherent tumor growth directly from the bone tissue, occurs only in 1% of cases. Doctors often diagnose secondary cancer in the treatment of the patient with complaints of pain.
- Secondary cancer – a bone tumor was formed due to a malignant tumor to nearby tissues or internal organs. Conversely, a malignant tumor of the bone resulted in the formation of metastases of the internal organs and surrounding tissues.
Among the benign bone tumors are:
- Osteoma – your development is due to overgrowth of osteoblast bone tissue. Often located on the outer surface of the bone. Commonly affects the skull base, maxillary sinus, femur and humerus.
- The osteoid osteoma – affects long bones of the limbs. Is a benign tumor of small size – not more than 1 cm Has clear boundaries and distinct areas of osteogenesis.
- Osteoblastoma is a tumor with histological structure similar to osteoid osteoma, only has large dimensions and is characterized by the absence of the zone of osteogenesis. Often affects the spine.
- Chondroma – develops from the cartilage cells of the bone. Often affects the long bones. Found in teenagers. There is also osteochondroma is an intermediate state between tumor osteoma and chondroma. It identifies the cells of bone and cartilage framework of the external cover.
- Chondromyxoid bibroni – a tumor composed of cells of cartilage located in the metaphysis of the long bones of the legs.
- Solitary bone cyst – commonly affects long bones of children and adolescents. Is characterized by one or mnogokanalnosti the cavities of bones.
- Osteoblastoclastoma – reproduction mononuclear cells osteoblast with bloody or serous cysts. Can be as benign tumor and malignant education.
The presented list is not all benign tumors of bone is regularly updated with new tumors, the structure of which is still not identified and studied by specialists.
Malignant tumors of bone
Experts identify several types of tumors, which have distinctive features in the cell types, their structure. Here are the following types of cancer:
- Osteogenic sarcoma is the most dangerous form of bone cancer, characterized by aggressive course and development of tumors. Quickly triggers the formation of metastases of the internal organs and tissues. In most cases affects the tubular bones of the feet.
- Protalina sarcoma – causes rapid formation of metastases because of the slow development and growth of the tumor. Affects the outer surface of the bone.
- Ewing’s sarcoma often occurs in children and adolescents. It affects the bones, prolonged inactivity contributes to the formation of metastasis, which quickly spread throughout the body in blood vessels and lymphatic system.
- Chondrosarcoma – transformed tumor sarcoma formed from cartilage cells.
- Malignant fibrous histiocytoma – has its origin in malignancies of soft tissue, which subsequently affect the bones of the upper and lower extremities of a person.
- Chordoma is a primary cancer involving the skull base and spine.
- Fibrosarcoma – a tumor formed of the soft tissues gradually turns to the bones. The most susceptible to the disease women.
Bone tumors may be caused by the growth of malignant tumors of the internal organs and soft tissues, which significantly affects the course of treatment.
As tumors manifest themselves?
Early signs of bone cancer exist, but later humans begin to disturb the pain, which can cause dysfunction of limbs, if the tumor is localized in the arm or leg.
In case of untimely intervention, the patient may complain of severe pain that occur as palpation of the swelling of the affected area, and with a simple movement.
In some cases, the inflammatory process begins which entails a rise in body temperature.
The slightest trauma can result in fracture.
The spread of metastases, tumors of the bone characterized by a significant weight loss with good appetite.
Diagnosis of cancer of the coast involves a comprehensive examination, where the patient passes the examination, the doctor-oncologist and delivery of tests.
The physician on examination may establish the cause of the manifestation of the tumor affected area by palpation. General blood tests reveal a number of indicators, significantly deviating from the norm.
Often to identify malignant tumors enough to pass x-ray examination.
As additional measures the patient can be sent to:
- on examination with a computed tomography;
- to undergo magnetic resonance imaging;
- radionuclide bone scan;
- holding a needle or surgical biopsy of the bone.
Additional survey will help to identify the type of tumor of the bones and to determine the further treatment.
A set of measures of therapy
In the diagnosis of bone cancer treatment begins, which includes the following methods:
- Assigned to chemotherapy helps to destroy the cells that led to tumor formation, and also helps to eliminate the metastasis.
- Radiation therapy – used for the removal of bone tumors.
- Surgery – remove part of the bone or amputation. Used in advanced cases. Entails additional remote prosthetics of bones.
Depending on the stage of the disease at the time of consultation in the clinic treatment can take place in «reverse order».
Prognosis and prevention
In medicine, the prognosis of survival of patients with cancers will be calculated for five years after diagnosis.
Here for statistical calculations we take both adults and children. The survival rate is more than 70%.
What sways prevention, it is impossible to prevent the occurrence of bone tumors.
The only thing that experts recommend is to undergo a comprehensive annual survey. People falling in the risk group are screened twice a year.
Take care of your health. If you feel unwell, pain in a specific area, as well as a characteristic «bulging», address to the doctor. He conducted an examination and the results of the comprehensive examination will be able to diagnose the disease.