Bursitis of the ankle joint: photos, etiology, clinic and treatment
Diseases of musculoskeletal system occupy a special place in the General structure of diseases. The urgency of the problem that suffer from this disease people of any age. In addition, many diseases are becoming chronic, which can lead to serious complications up to disability. Recently quite often there are diseases of the joints. Of great interest is this pathology like bursitis of the ankle joint.
Bursitis can develop in the various joints. Allocate the knee, elbow, shoulder, ankle bursitis and some other forms. The inflammatory process may be specific and non-specific nature. In the first case it is a complication or clinical signs of the disease.
There are syphilitic and tuberculous bursitis. If the inflammatory process in the ankle region is formed due to injuries and other external influences, then we are talking about non-specific bursitis. Let us consider in more detail what is the etiology, clinic and treatment of this pathology looks like on the photo the affected joint.
Characteristics and causes of the disease
What is bursitis? Is an inflammatory process affecting the articular bags. Bag (Bursa) is a capsule consisting of connective tissue, which protects all elements of the joint and produces a small amount of synovial fluid. The latter plays a very important role in metabolic processes. It nourishes the cartilage and reduces friction in the joint. Synovium looks like a slit-like cavity. Is Bursa where there are the protrusions of bone.
The bones of the foot and lower leg are connected to each other using a variety of joints. The largest of them — the ankle. Here is localized to all known Achilles tendon. Bag is at the junction of the calcaneus with the heel tendon. It should be noted that the synovial bags can be placed in different places: under the fascia, skin, muscles, tendons.
Bursitis of the ankle joint quite often. Almost always the disease is characterized by the formation of exudate. Distinguish purulent, serous, hemorrhagic, fibrinous bursitis. Ankle joint hit by disease, shown in the photo above.
Bunions, like many other pathological processes, has a different etiology. Acute bursitis in most cases develops on the background of injuries, and chronic — as a result of prolonged exposure to any mechanical factors. Often, the acute form of the disease becomes chronic. This is observed in delayed care or self-medication. That is why it is very important to consult a doctor. Acute bursitis may develop with osteomyelitis, carbuncles, erysipelas. All these diseases are characterized by suppurative inflammation, which is a great trigger for inflammation of the synovial Bursa of the ankle joint.
The penetration of the infectious agent is often lymphogenous way. There is another mechanism of infection is through damaged skin. In this case, the germs from penetrating into the joint cavity through abrasions, cuts. Rarely diagnosed bursitis in rheumatoid arthritis, gout. Contribute to the inflammatory process, salts that abundantly accumulate in the joint cavity. As for chronic bursitis, it can be in athletes.
Of great importance in the development of inflammation of the synovial bags have predisposing factors:
- excess body weight;
- the abuse of alcohol;
- the presence of diabetes;
- taking certain medications (corticosteroids);
- high loads on the joint during prolonged walking or heavy physical labor;
- wearing poor quality and inadequate size of the foot shoes;
- hypothermia of the foot;
- flat feet.
The clinical manifestations of the disease
The symptoms of bursitis, any other inflammatory process include swelling, pain, swelling, dysfunction of the joint. Very often in patients with increased body temperature, discomfort occurs. If there is a purulent bursitis, the temperature can rise to 40 degrees and above. Redness of the skin in the affected ankle joint, is defined by pronounced swelling. On palpation of the calcaneal tuberosity of the foot there is pain. The skin near the joint becomes more dense.
All of the above clinical manifestations lead to a violation of motor activity. Difficult walking, which leads to deterioration of quality of life, including limitation of employment. Specific clinical feature is the formation of exudate in the joint cavity. It may be purulent or mixed with blood. In the latter case we can talk about the traumatic nature of the bursitis.
To determine the possible exudation on palpation of the affected area. You can feel the movement of the liquid inside. The symptoms are clearly manifested only in the acute form of bursitis. Chronic type of disease may progress slowly. It is important to know that the long-term development of the disease an ankle joint, and with it the entire foot of the person can be deformed. Photo of bursitis and lesions caused by them are easy to find in specialized literature.
Bursitis in the absence of adequate therapy can lead to Achilles tendon rupture, causing a person to become disabled.
Diagnosis and treatment of bursitis
Diagnosis of bursitis involves collecting of the anamnesis of disease, complaints of the patient, palpation of the affected ankle joint, laboratory and instrumental examinations. In order to determine the nature of the exudates is arthrocentesis. With its help it is possible to examine the synovial fluid, to determine the causative agent of the disease. This largely depends on the subsequent treatment of the patient. If you suspect that a bunion has developed on the background of other infections, and it has a specific etiology, assess the level of antibodies is carried out bacteriological examination.
If there is inflammation bags the ankle joint, treatment is prescribed by a doctor only after confirmation of the diagnosis using the MRI or x-ray. Therapy largely depends on the type of pathogen and form of pathology. In acute purulent bursitis necessarily assigned antibiotics that affect a pathogen. If the patient has aseptic type of ailment, the doctor prescribes painkillers from the group of NSAIDs, compresses. In addition, the patient is obliged to provide rest the affected joint. Eliminates load on the ankle.
In severe conducted lavage of the joint capsule and the joint cavity with antiseptic solutions, is draining. Chronic type of disease may require surgical intervention. Surgery aims to excision of the joint capsule.
Remember that bursitis is a dangerous disease that can become chronic and lead to impaired function of the affected ankle joint.