Callus after fracture: causes, symptoms and treatment photo
Why the callus formed after a fracture and how it is dangerous?
Bone tissue is one of the types of connective tissue.
It consists of bone cells, organic skeleton bones, basic intercellular substance.
The bone has four types of cells:
- Osteoblasts are cells found in the growth that are involved in creating the bones.
- Osteoclasts — cells, the opposite of osteoblasts — responsible for bone destruction. The osteoblasts and osteoclasts continuously working on the destruction and creation of bones. This process allows the body to adapt to physical stress.
- The osteocytes are cells that come from osteoblasts. They are contained in the intercellular substance and are responsible for bone metabolism.
- Osteogeny, or they are called undifferentiated mesenchymal cells of the bone. Of them appear new osteoblasts and osteoclasts.
Cells is only 1-3% of the composition of bone tissue. Another 90% is in the extracellular matrix and 5% main mineralized substance.
The regeneration of bone tissue
After fractures bone tissue is regenerated, allowing the bones to knit together.
Regeneration is of two types:
- Physiological regeneration is an ongoing and very slow process of restoring the structures of the tissues. This process occurs in the healthy body as soon as tissues grow old and die. A simple example of physiological regeneration of tissue — skin that peels and flakes off. The process of physiological regeneration does not cause the body stress.
- Reparative regeneration, on the contrary, causes the body stress response, as this process starts when the tissue is damaged or lost. The process of reparative regeneration depends on the differentiation of tissue: the higher it is, the harder it will be to restore the structure.
Once the bone is damaged, it goes through several stages of the reparative process, restoring the anatomical shape, the histological structure and functional fitness.
A bone fracture accompanied by a rupture of the adjacent soft tissues, which causes the body stress, accompanied by local and General reaction.
Bone recovery is a long process that depends on several factors:
- the age of the patient;
- the condition of the body;
- the quality of treatment;
- the blood supply to the bone.
What is a callus?
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Reparative processes between the bone elements directly is impossible. This is due to the periosteum.
During a full fracture it is responsible for the healing of the bone elements, forming a callus.
First, this process occurs in subperiosteal departments, then in the inner layers, then into the intramedullary canal and then between atomtime bones.
Looks like it’s in the form of multiple growths of different size and located randomly. In the process of rebuilding growths one after another dissolve, and there is only one directly at the fracture site.
This will be a callus, most of all it is visible after fracture of the clavicle, as it is located directly under the skin.
Callus is of several types.
- Parietalna. Looks like a small bulge formed on the outer part of the bone. This type of corn is very quickly regenerated, as is well supplied with blood.
- Andaustralia, which is located inside the bone, marrow near the valve.
- InterMedia, which is located between the bone fragments.
- Parassala — ledge, which is surrounded by part of the broken bone.
The conditions for callus formation depends on type of fracture: complete or incomplete.
Incomplete fractures are also referred to as fissures and are much more common. A hairline fracture is diagnosed more rarely because in most cases it simply does not pay attention.
A complete fracture is less common, but is accompanied by more serious consequences, such as complete rupture of the bone tissue and the periosteum.
In this case, the formation of callus will depend on three factors:
- where fracture occurred (since all the bones are healing individually);
- what it is (comminuted, transverse, spiral or oblique);
- the function of the affected area (directly on the formation of corn is not affected, only appearance).
Stages of formation of growth
The formation of callus occurs in stages.
- First step: you receive the scar in a week after fracture.
- Second stage: the scar turns into a cartilaginous element in a month after the fracture.
- Third step: the transformation of cartilage in ossified tissue (if there is calcium deposits). The term transformation — from 3 to 5 months.
- Fourth stage: the final formation of callus, which is completed after at least a year after injury.
If you met all the conditions of callus formation, it is considered the norm. Pathological course she takes, if violated at least one condition of its formation.
Anomalies callus can appear for several reasons:
- incorrectly chosen tactics of treatment of a fracture;
- incorrect matching of bone;
- violation of the rules of patients (for example, when he early begins to load the body part where you had a fracture);
- the weakness of the body (disruption of endocrine system, decrease in immunity and other chronic diseases);
- suppuration of fracture.
Features of education in different bones
Terms of callus formation and the nature of matter, which the bone is subjected to fracture.
- Collarbone. When you fracture that bone callus is formed within 1.5-2 months. In most cases, quickly dissipates, however, may remain in the form of a damper. This callus is most noticeable, as the clavicle closest to the surface of the skin.
- Nose. This bone is often subjected to the formation of callus. Also frequent education after rhinoplasty. They are formed on average 3-4 months, and the final healing of the nose will only happen two years after the operation.
- Edge. Callus in fractures of ribs formed within a month. The formation often causes pain and discomfort. After 3-4 months, you receive a full education. This dissolves the corn in a year.
- Toe. Callus appears not only on the fingers, but between them. Corn on these bones is formed fairly quickly — for 1-1,5 months. At this time, it is recommended to wear shoes which creates friction and does not interfere with normal fracture healing.
- Heel. Callus formation in this area occurs over 2-3 months.
Learn about the appearance of callus by making a x-ray. The formation of the pathology will look like a cloud in a place where there was a broken bone.
If the picture is already formed callus — this suggests that the fracture happened long ago and the bone has already started to coalesce.
In the picture, the surgeon can accurately determine when the injury and prescribe an appropriate treatment.
When you need to remove?
In most cases, treatment of callus is required. However, it often happens that its location interferes and creates pain (for example, if it is located on the heel or clavicle).
Also a callus on the nose require treatment, as this part of the face receives unsightly appearance.
There are several methods for removing build-up without surgical intervention occurs long and difficult. This is a set of procedures and adherence:
- the full release of the dice from the physical exertion and extreme temperatures;
- a special diet;
- the constant supervision of a physician in a hospital;
- physiotherapy: electrophoresis, magneto — and thermotherapy.
If corn is accompanied by not passing pain, doctors go to extreme measures — operation. However, this type of getting rid of callus can not guarantee a perfect result.
Callus is a kind of inflammatory process. Its removal can cause re-inflammation. That is why doctors recommend to remove the corn without surgical intervention.
To prevent calluses is much easier than to cure. For this you need to follow a few rules:
- be sure to consult your doctor even if you have bruises or cracks;
- strictly follow the recommendations for fixing broken bones;
- try to avoid pathologies which may arise in the process of fusion of bone;
- to observe antibacterial prophylaxis during open fractures.
Callus, as such, is not considered a pathology and indicates that the fusion of parts of the broken bone began. However, this does not mean that the process is correct and efficient.
In order to avoid possible problems, need timely diagnosis, consultation and observance of all his recommendations.