Cancer of the knee
Knee cancer called malignant lesions, an exciting fabric of the bones forming the knee joint. This pathology is expressed in the abnormal and uncontrolled growth of genetically altered cells. Begins to develop the disease is mainly due to contact of cancer cells in the knee of the adjacent parts of the body. Very rare, although such cases had been identified, the focus of the cancer process is initially in the knee region. This type of cancer is quite rare: only about one percent of all cancers. Most often this cancer affects men of advanced age or children.
Causes and symptoms of cancer knee
Although cancer in the knee and is quite rare, but the factors causing its occurrence are defined adequately. The most common pathology of the knee joint is a consequence of certain precipitating factors.
The impact of all these factors can lead to the appearance of joint pathology, the symptoms of which are determined by at what stage is the cancer and how far it has spread. If the symptoms are identified at the beginning of disease, manifestations of pathology are usually a slight soreness of not having an accurate localization and passing attacks. With the gradual increase of the tumor, the pain intensified and become more concentrated in the area of the affected joint. Unlike the pain of other origin, cancer is manifested by pain, which is often not dealt with by standard painkillers.
When cancer develops joint until the third or fourth stage, new cancer symptoms. So, it is possible to observe the extent of deformation of the knee joint and the swelling of the periarticular tissues. Modified bone surface becomes easy to probe palpation. Sometimes in the affected area the pain occurs even during palpation. After the period of active growth of malignant pathology stabiliziruemost, and for some time the symptoms are invisible. It was at this point starts the germination of the affected tissues in the skin.
In the later stages of the cancer characterizes specific intoxication, manifested prolonged fever, fatigue, malaise, fatigue and disability. In addition, it often happens that the markedly decreased appetite, dramatically reduces the weight of the patient.
Once identified the symptoms corresponding to the presence of a malignant pathology, it is recommended to undergo a more thorough examination. The method for determining the presence in a patient’s body of cancerous tumors, is based on radiology and uses penetrating x-ray radiation effect.
|X-ray||After performing the sighting of x-rays, the doctor examines them and performs the initial diagnosis. These images and determine the presence of malignant tumors and its size. X-ray examination allows to reveal tumors not only in the knees, with the help of a survey and other joints, particularly the hip.|
|CT||If the x-rays confirmed the presence of the tumor, and the symptoms indicate that the disease is still present, it is recommended to conduct a more detailed study, using computed tomography. Often, this study resorted to clarify the structure of the developing tumor. CT is fundamentally based on the same x-ray examination but are performed in layers.|
|MRI||The most informative method of diagnosis is recognized today as magnetic resonance imaging. In the result of MRI obtained digital renthenznimky, which can accurately determine not only the boundaries but also the qualitative composition of cancer education. Resorting to an MRI, quite often the cancer is diagnosed early and treated successfully.|
|Biopsy||The removal of small quantities of biological material is phased biopsy. Thereafter, histological and cytological study. The result of the work of the laboratory is issuing the doctor’s certificate, which accurately described the type and incidence of tumors.|
The final diagnosis is established only after the implementation of laboratory studies of the area affected by the pathology of the tissue.
The treatment of the disease
It must be noted that cancer of the joints, including the knee and hip, should begin to heal immediately after the first symptoms, and was carried out qualitative diagnostics. With timely diagnosis, in the case of the primary lesion bone tissues, treatment outcome is usually favorable. If cancer is detected at later stages, when there are multiple metastases, the prognosis is negative.
Treatment for cancer in the knee depends on the presence of metastases, penetrating into the neighboring region, and the prevalence of tumors. If the cancer is detected at an early stage, the tumor is restricted to a small area, and no metastases, it is sometimes sufficient to remove the pathology by surgery. Depending on the size of the removed tumors is determined by the duration of the period of rehabilitation. Sometimes the tumor grows to a considerable size already at the initial stage of the disease, in this case, you may need radical excision of the limb.
Often before a surgical operation, carried out preparatory activities consisting in the passage of the patient course of chemotherapy exposure. Cytotoxic agents used in chemotherapy, contributing to the death of diseased cells. The duration of the course and dosage of drugs are determined individually for a particular patient.
The disease, which developed up to late stages and caused the formation of multiple metastases, palliative care should be treated using the combined therapeutic methods. The use of radiation therapy, which is an effect on tumor radiological radiation allows to remove the modified cancer cells. Often the use of ionizing radiation allows to stabilize the primary focus of disease and to stop its progression, it is especially valuable in inoperable cases.
Traditional radiation therapy usually complemented with chemotherapy, significantly increases the effectiveness of treatment.