Cervical plexus: definition, disease

The cervical spine is one of the most important structures of the body. It concentrated a large number of nerve endings and muscles. For any disease, developing in this area, there is a possibility of compression of nerve endings and blood vessels. It affects many organs.Шейное сплетение: определение, заболевания


Anatomy of the plexus

Four spinal nerve unite to form the cervical plexus. This structure is covered between the muscles of the neck going through the collar bone and the sternum. It connects with a few nerves, they are the hypoglossal nerve, upper spinal cord and sympathetic post.

The cervical plexus is the center from which emanates a large number of muscles that go in different directions: to the head, the sternum, the scapula, the clavicle. From him come the end of the fiber, of which forms the cervical loop. A large number of nerve endings as its the beginning of the plexus. The most sensitive are nerve endings located in certain parts of the head and body.

Шейное сплетение: определение, заболевания

The structure of the cervical spine

  • Ear the end of the reach back, earlobes, cartilage and reach the outer part of the ear canal.
  • The back of the head: it bears the name of the small occipital nerve, supplies the end part of the head behind the ear and above it.
  • Neck: these are the nerve endings responsible for the sensitivity of the front of the neck, the nerve runs in muscle.
  • Clavicle: the nerve endings are on top of the collarbone and reaches the front upper part of the chest. They go from the cervical plexus down.
  • Aperture: the beginning of these nerve endings is the cervical plexus, from which they go down. In this case, the nerve is split into two halves, right and left. Right comes along the Vena cava and reaches the pericardium. The left part of the nerve extends into the aperture in the centre of the tendons and is where are the ribs. Originate from the nerve fiber end movement, directed to the diaphragm. Sensitive end located at the pleura and pericardium, and down into the peritoneum, ligament of the liver and the diaphragm.
  • In plexus, in addition to the various branches, is not one of the cervical loop. There are a total of three. Branches, which emits from each loop are divided into groups: skin, muscle, and connective. These structures connect different parts of the body, thus forming the nervous system.


    Features of the structure of the cervical

    The cervical spine, due to the large concentration of nerves in this area is the cervical thickening of the spinal cord. The spinal cord is within the spinal canal, starting from the upper edge of the first cervical vertebra to the first or to the beginning of the second lumbar vertebra. Education enlargement of the spinal cord in the neck due to the fact that there is a plexus of nerve endings. These structures come from the shoulder girdle upper extremities.

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    Cervical thickening is at the level of the third and fourth cervical vertebrae. It reaches the second thoracic vertebra. The maximum size of the thickening reaches the area of the fifth cervical vertebra. At this point, the cross-sectional area of the spinal cord in two times less than in the thoracic.

    Thickening is in the same Department, where the main nerve centers, such as the cervical loop of the system of nerve endings, blood vessels. Thickening hides in nerve cells and fibers and is responsible for the limbs.


    Abnormalities of the cervical-thoracic spine

    Most often in this section of the spine found such an anomaly, as cervical rib. They are different in form. For example, there are edges on one or two sides. In this case bilateral cervical ribs are often different in terms of the manifestation of the clinical picture. It was a congenital condition, but it commonly manifests itself in older age.

    Also, cervical ribs are divided into true and false. These cervical ribs vary in constituent parts. The true ribs have a more complex structure: besides the body, they have the head bone and the neck. False ribs are more simple and have only the body, connecting with the process of the syndesmosis or synostosis.

    Edges can be categorized differently and vary in the following types: full cervical rib and incomplete. Full comes to the first thoracic rib and connects to it through a fibrous strand. Incomplete, ends in the soft tissues. In the diagnosis one of the difficulties is to distinguish between a cervical rib from the very large process of the cervical vertebra.

    Шейное сплетение: определение, заболевания

    1 — the first pair of cervical ribs; 2 for the second pair of cervical ribs

    Cervical ribs occur in 0.5% of the population and more often in females. While cervical rib can manifest itself only 10% of people with this pathology. Depending on the type and size of the ribs, this anomaly can manifest itself in different ways.

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    Thus, in the ribs is often observed compression of blood vessels. This leads to circulatory disorders. In the pathology in the form of incomplete ribs most often manifest as neurological abnormalities.

    Most often cervical rib of any type are manifested by the appearance of pain, which appears due to the fact that the compressed nerve endings. Most of the edge acts on the brachial plexus, so the patients have pain in the elbow joints, swelling of the upper extremities, the development of various pathologies associated with changes in the subclavian artery, which can reach up to gangrene.

    There are many techniques for the diagnosis of disorders of the nervous system, due to the brachial plexus and to detect violations of blood circulation, if the compressed subclavian artery. Treatment is assigned depending on the stage of the disease and the type of violation they caused.


    Ganglionic: definition and causes of development

    Another pathology of the cervical spine is ganglionic — pathology of one or more nerve sites. He is the most dangerous in the case of lesions of the upper node since it is adjacent to the hinge and a large plexus of nerves. In part sympathetic trunk, which lies in the cervical spine, there are three node: top, back and bottom.

    Шейное сплетение: определение, заболеванияThe most important of these upper cervical node. From it diverge sympathetic fibers go to the plexus of blood vessels, carotid artery, different parts of the head through the vertebral and basilar arteries. Extension of the cervical nodes are the beginning of the jugular and carotid nerve, which runs around the carotid artery. This nerve leave the branches as carotid-tympanic nerves, the deep petrous nerve and the cavernous plexus.

    It is the upper cervical sympathetic ganglion can affect ganglionic. His appearance contribute to a variety of factors. It can be a chronic infectious disease, intoxication, osteochondrosis of the cervical and thoracic spine.

    Ganglionic can be identified by several characteristics.

  • Pain similar to a burn center which is the place where developing ganglionic. They are distributed on the half of the body, which develops pathology. The duration of pain may vary from 4-5 hours to several minutes.
  • Violations of the autonomic system. The body temperature drops, changes the regime of flow and salivation.
  • Skin pigmentation appears.
  • To diagnose ganglionic helps palpation. It is necessary to probe the points at which the output is a ternary plexus nerve, occipital nerve. Is palpation of points that are the projection of nodes of the neck. In addition, ganglionit is characterized by impaired sensitivity of a type that is difficult to ascertain and classify.

    Ganglionic treated comprehensively removed pain, appointed anti-inflammatory drugs.


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    Vertebral-basilar insufficiency and its consequences

    Шейное сплетение: определение, заболеванияThe decrease in blood flow of the arteries of the spine called a vertebral-basilar insufficiency (VBN). This is another pathology, the development of which is possible on the background of cervical degenerative disc disease. This disorder leads to disorders of cerebral circulation and, as a consequence, disruption of brain functions, and 30 % leads to stroke. It is important to distinguish between vertebral-basilar insufficiency in the early stages. Symptoms can be:

    • the deterioration of visual acuity or hearing loss;
    • balance problems;
    • the decline of vital energy, fatigue, tiredness;
    • nausea, vomiting, fainting;
    • discomfort in the back of the head;
    • irregular heartbeat, fever, hot flashes to the head, impaired sweating;
    • mood swings, emotional breakdowns in the form of crying or fits of anger.

    If you have cervical osteochondrosis, there is a high likelihood of vertebral — basilar insufficiency, as is compressed a major artery (i.e. of the upper cervical node). The most popular method of diagnosis of vertebral-basilar insufficiency is the purpose of the ultrasound examination using the method of Doppler ultrasound, and a study on the MRI.

    In addition, it seems a blood test. And this is only a small part of the research, which usually takes people with suspected vertebral-basilar insufficiency. Often, this diagnosis is carried out and patients with a diagnosis of cervical osteochondrosis.

    Treatment is prescribed depending on the stage of the disease. Commonly, in addition to the use of medicines, recommended diet, physiotherapy, reflexology and exercises from a course of physiotherapy. The use of various methods of therapy helps to alleviate a patient’s life, and also to protect him from a stroke.

    If you have discomfort in the neck should consult a neurologist. In addition, you need to pass all the necessary research to prevent more serious diseases.