Contracture of the elbow, its causes, diagnosis and treatment
When the contracture in the joint occurs retraction of soft tissues and scar formation, which negatively affects the mobility of the joint. The name of the disease comes from the Latin word «contractura», which means in translation into Russian «narrowing» or «contraction». In particular, contracture of the elbow joint is characterized by a sharp limitation of his mobility due to retraction of scars ligaments, muscles or tendons inside the joint.
There is a contraction of intra-articular tissues after:
- inflammatory processes;
- dislocation, fracture or injury;
- degenerative changes caused by an infectious or viral disease;
- innervation and loss of elasticity of tissues;
- diseases of the nervous system;
- wounds, including burn and fire;
- degeneration of tissues due to prolonged immobility of the limbs.
For athletes characteristic contracture of the knee joint caused by frequent physical strain. At risk are individuals who work at hazardous chemical facilities and those whose activities are associated with lifting and carrying heavy loads. These people often suffer from poor mobility of the articular joints after burn, falling or constant microtemperature.
Classification of the disease
Joint pathology, such as contracture of the elbow joint, like any other, accompanied by pain, swelling, inflammation inside the joint capsule. Main symptoms of the disease: difficulty in flexion and extension, the impossibility of a reversal of the limb to the side, turning it inside or out, deformity of the joint. In adults and children limb in the affected area can take a forced situation.
Joint contractures are classified into active and passive. Active or neurogenic contracture of joint is a:
- Central – it includes diseases of spinal and cerebral origin.
- peripheral – appears after damage to peripheral nerve branches;
- hysterical — has a psychogenic etiology.
Active contractures often develop after paralysis, paresis, steady irritation of nerve endings, with a strong mental stress.
Passive contracture of the joint appears as a result of interference that occurs inside the joint and slows its movement. Obstacles can be:
- collapsing as a result of inflammation of the joint;
- education intra muscular scar;
- the contraction of the muscles;
- deformation of the skeletal joints due to fracture or disease.
The nature of the lesion vary rotational, flexor, extensor, and abductor and adductor contracture.
Also contracture of the joint varies according to the limb that it touches. For violation of flexor-extensor function of the knee knee flexion contracture creates a deformation of the legs up to the curvature. The limb reduced in length, the patient experiences severe pain during movement. Improper treatment can result to a patient’s complete immobility of the knee joint. Pathology occurs most often as a result of fracture or artrose-arthritic changes in the tissues.
Most often suffer from the disease, the patients with diseases of the joints, which occur at them in the acute or chronic form. In the knee joint infringement occurs not only in the elderly, in children can also manifest the disease.
Features contractures of various joints
Abnormal position of the foot gives a contracture of the ankle joint when a person when walking can only rely on the front of the foot and toes. This disease is also called «horse foot». It occurs in children who have had polio or suffer from cerebral palsy. Adults acquire the «horse’s foot» after a long stay in the feet incorrectly imposed plaster. Contracture may occur because of a fracture that is left without proper treatment. Often contracture of the foot occurs after injury.
Causes in which there is contracture of the hip joint, become injuries that damage the articular surface, as well as acute and chronic inflammatory processes. Formed due to fracture, illness can develop gradually, imperceptibly for the person, and may declare itself at once, for example, when damage to the nerves. Then when attempting abduction of the limb, the patient feels a sharp pain and limited range of motion.
To prevent contractures of the hip special attention should be paid to the femoral joints of the newborn. In the presence of a dislocation or dysplasia of the hip should begin to treat the baby immediately after birth, in order to compensate for the underdevelopment of the tissues and prevent the formation of contractures, osteoporosis and other pathologies.
There is also contracture of the shoulder joint in people of all ages. Its cause is often muscle atrophy due to long wearing of the plaster bandage imposed at the place of fracture or dislocation.
The anatomical structure of the shoulder girdle children and adults makes it possible periarticular or intra-articular fractures that are treated exactly by the method of prolonged immobilization. To avoid posttraumatic contractures of the shoulder, should, upon consolidation of the fracture plaster bandage to take the patient’s shoulder at the sixty-degrees and lock it in a functionally advantageous position.
Diagnostic and therapeutic methods
Upon detection of the characteristic contractures of symptoms for an accurate diagnosis, the patient must undergo a medical examination, and after that a designated doctor examination. When the contracture of the affected area becomes inflamed, it swells and hurts to move, so the goal of treatment is to relieve swelling, pain, decrease inflammation, return the joint to its normal movement.
In addition to radiography, to detect contracture in children and adults help of computer and magnetic resonance tomography. Parents it is advisable to seek medical help at the first complaints of children in difficulty of movement and pain. Then, when treatment will be possible to manage conservative methods.
Conservative treatment methodology combines:
- analgesic and anti-inflammatory treatment with ointments and pharmaceutical closures;
- physical therapy;
- gymnastic exercises;
- non-invasive remedy of the limb.
Surgical intervention is often necessary after a diagnosis of passive contracture.
During the operation, adhesions and scar tissue is dissected and removed. Increases, if necessary, the length of the tendon. In some cases, required plastic surgery tendon transfers or the creation of complete immobility of the joint.
The value of physiotherapy
A comprehensive treatment of contractures of the knee joint involves a combination of gymnastics with heat and pain therapy, electrophoresis with the use of absorbable drugs, manual exposure. When the patient complains of flexion contracture of the knee joint, he was prescribed a set of exercises aimed at the gradual development of the ligaments, strengthen weak muscles, improve blood circulation in periarticular areas.
«The horse’s foot to» cure, in addition to these methods, and even special orthopaedic bandages and apparatus. If exercise and therapeutic methods do not help, the foot straightened surgically.
Protivojinfectionnaya therapeutic gymnastics is conducted carefully, with caution and gradually increase intensity. It includes six to twenty different exercises, each of which need to be repeated five to ten times. For children exercises best done in a playful way.
Designed Wellness exercises on a daily execution of the whole complex. Then the recovery of children and adults will be most effective. Rehabilitation of damaged joints faster when therapeutic exercises combined with swimming, yoga, exercise on special equipment.