Damage to the meniscus of the knee: symptoms, diagnosis and treatment
Damage to the meniscus of the knee joint is one of the most common diseases. It is often found among athletes or people who engage in daily physical labor. In other words, damage to the meniscus is a disconnect. Knee injuries are divided into several groups. One of them are changes of degenerative character. Thus, chronic damage (senile arthritis), hereditary pathology, untreated trauma — all this increases the risk of meniscus injury.
Osteoarthritis can develop years, sometimes the disease takes a chronic form and makes itself felt when the person is elderly. Sometimes, any wrong move will damage the inner or outer meniscus. Usually, this pathology for a long time. Therefore, senile arthrosis is the greatest danger for healthy joints and structures of the knee. You should periodically visit their doctor and as needed to pass examinations, appropriate procedures. Osteoarthritis leads to joint destruction, which will be reflected not only on the state of the knee, but also on the health of sore feet.
Known cases when patients did not cure the osteoarthritis (or treated incorrectly) and became disabled.Since the knee is a complex structure, the treatment of injuries of any nature is difficult.
The knee is the largest joint. He, despite all the injuries, is able to recover. Usually assigned conservative, comprehensive treatment. Surgery is required in rare cases when physiotherapy, traditional medicine and other remedies are useless.
What is a knee joint and how it functions
It is located between two bones: the femur and the tibia. The front is the kneecap. Anatomically the knee is comprised of the cruciate ligaments, cartilage and menisci.
Ligaments in the joint are two: front and back. They perform important functions such as resistance to displacement of the tibia backwards or forwards beyond the norm, retention bony protrusions and stabilize the whole joint. Its surface is covered with cartilage. Between the two bones (tibia and femur) are the menisci. They are also called Crescent-shaped cartilage.
There are two types of meniscus: external and internal. In medicine, the concept of the meniscus is interpreted so: this is a layer of cartilage that are located in the inner part of the knee. As a rule, they serve as shock absorbers and serve as stabilizer. The outer meniscus is called the lateral, and internal — medial.
Meniscus damage knee joint significantly complicate movement. Until recently it was believed that the presence of a lateral meniscus (and medial) was not due to any of the functions. Doctors believed that it was just the remnants of muscle. However, according to the results of numerous studies, doctors have identified a number of functions. It turns out that the menisci are able to distribute the load on the joint, protecting it from arthrosis, arthritis. They reduce the thrust force, which falls on the knee and stabilize it.
The presence of the meniscus of the knee provides a significant reduction in voltage when contact. They limit range of motion to avoid dislocation. In addition, the main function of the meniscus is to transfer the signal to the brain about the state of joint at the moment.
As is often the case of damage to the meniscus
The gap of this structure is observed mainly in athletes. However, the implementation of daily physical activity also leads to various injuries. The risk group includes, as a rule, men.
The fact that they perform all the physical work, so often prone to such damage. Often affects people of middle age. Men from 18 to 30 years are at risk.
People in old age, the disease is also common, but for other reasons. It may be pathology of the joint, which has evolved and passed into the chronic form. Thus, any degenerative changes of the knee joint soon have consequences (even sudden impact or wrong movement can cause the rupture of the meniscus). Which meniscus is damaged more often than others: lateral or medial? According to statistics, the majority of patients are diagnosed with damage to the inner meniscus. This is due to the fact that it is anatomically more prone to injuries. However, there are cases when the injury extends to the entire structure of the joint. In addition to the affected meniscus damage and ligaments.
Symptoms of trauma are known to have pronounced. This is a common pain, the intensity of which depends on the severity of the injury.
Signs of trauma
Injury to the meniscus often occur with twisting on the leg. This happens while running, when the leg is on the convex surface. In this situation, the person falls and is injured. Damage of the inner or outer meniscus cause pain in the affected location.
Signs and symptoms of meniscus injury depends on exactly where a gap had opened up. So, when more extensive injuries of the meniscus formed hematoma. If meniscus damage is small, then the person becomes difficult to walk. While walking you hear a clicks and POPs. The causes are also important. In accordance with the prescribed treatment.
Signs of rupture of the lateral meniscus of the knee joint, the symptoms of damage are different from characteristic damage to the internal meniscus of the knee joint. If the injury is external, the person there is pain when strained peroneal ligament (collateral). And the pain are radiating, radiating to the outer division of the joint. If you rotate the lower leg, you will feel a sharp pain. In the front of the thigh is observed weakness. Such symptoms has a tear of the lateral meniscus. Note that the disease makes itself felt already in the early stages of development, which allows time to begin treatment.
Damage to the medial nature of other signs and symptoms. Pain in the inner part of the joint, spot sensitivity in a certain area (the site of attachment of ligaments and meniscus), sharp, shooting pain in the stress joint are all symptoms of damage of medial meniscus. In addition to these symptoms, patients have edema. They do not give the moving kneecap. In the bending knee is also formed pain. In the front of the thigh, the patient felt weakness.
Remember that identifying the cause is important in order to prescribe the correct treatment. If, for example, you are getting on in age and found the symptoms described above, it is possible that you have degenerative rupture of a chronic nature. Young people have such a diagnosis will not occur.
To accurate diagnosis, should be referred to a specialist. First, he will give an oral survey, and then examine the affected leg. Next, the doctor will check: there is no accumulation of fluid, whether there is muscle atrophy? You need to address to the traumatologist.
An experienced doctor, when you give an oral survey and will examine the leg, immediately put the diagnosis. To confirm the diagnosis, conduct surveys. X-ray examination, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasonic radiation — all of this you have to go. X-rays — the main method of identifying joint injury.
Treatment of knee joint
To treat lesions in different methods. One of them is surgery. This method is required when the patient becomes difficult to bend and straighten the leg. Surgery is needed when the patient does not help conservative treatment.
Arthroscopy — the name of the operation to remove damaged meniscus. All necessary actions are done through two incisions. The operation is generally considered difficult. Full recovery of the patient after it occurs only in 2 weeks.
Treatment of injuries of the knee meniscus can be performed folk remedies. However doctors do not think that traditional medicine is able to heal the joint. Such methods are most often recommended as a Supplement. They are often used in the rehabilitation period. Here, the appropriate application of alcohol compresses based on honey. In addition, effective is a poultice of burdock or bow. Before using traditional medicine, consult a doctor.