Deformity of the chest is funnel-shaped, keeled, and other types

Why have children, there is deformity of the chest

Under the deformity of the chest should be understood that the chest changed its form due to congenital or acquired causes, and it causes a negative reaction on the activity of the internal organs in the chest cavity that are related to the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.

This interferes with the protective function of the thorax and the role of the framework.

Symptoms in the form of cosmetic defects often cause psychological trauma — the child begins to avoid friends and becomes withdrawn.

In the long run this can lead to unbalanced development and impaired social adaptation of the patient.

Classification pathology

According to the statistical study of congenital deformity affects only 2% of all births. Deformity of the chest in children is:

  1. Shoemaker chest (funnel chest deformity) is caused due to defective development of the costal cartilages. In newborns, it is almost invisible (visible with a deep breath), but the disease progresses and the growing edges are tightened the bone of the sternum inward, causing compression and displacement of the heart and great vessels. Clearly visible in 2-3 years. On the background of the presence in the breast funnel into 8-10 cm is observed curvature in the spine and disturbances of the circulation. In boys, this pathology is found in 3 times more. Is of three degrees: the first is the depth of the funnel 2 cm; the second is the depth of the crater of 2-4 cm, the heart is shifted to 3 cm; third — depth more than 4 cm, the shift of the hearts of more than 3 cm.
  2. Chicken or keel-shaped deformity on the contrary, occurs due to the strong growth of 5-7 costal cartilages — the sternum begins to protrude forward, like a bird’s keel. In the future, the deviation of serious irregularities in the internal organs does not bring, but patients often complain of fatigue and shortness of breath. Cosmetic defect pronounced.
  3. If splashiest of the chest is observed in the anteroposterior direction is a flat chest. Causes retardation in physical development, and frequent colds.
  4. Cleft sternum is the rarest of these pathologies can be complete or partial. As a child’s life the crack increases in size. The main danger lies in the lack of protection of the heart and great vessels are located directly under the skin. There is a constant risk of injury of internal organs, patients often lag behind in physical development. With this type of pathology is effective only surgery.
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Deformation of the thorax acquired in the processes of life are varied and depend on the reasons that cause them. Most often occur due to emphysema (swelling) of the lungs:

  1. The thorax becomes barrel, the edges adopt a horizontal orientation, the intercostal spaces are increased, expanded in the anteroposterior direction. This Hyper-inflated chest.
  2. Paralytic – called chronic diseases of the pleura and lungs, into which fibrous tissue grows, what happens

    lung volume reduction. The dimensions of the chest are diminished, intercostal spaces are increased. Blades heavily favored and asynchronously move during breathing.

  3. Navicular – occurs when disease of the spinal cord (syringomyelia), it formed a cavity and occurs disorders of sensitivity and motor functions. In this pathology in the upper and middle part of the sternum is formed by the scaphoid hole.
  4. In tuberculosis of the spine, rheumatoid arthritis due to the strong curvatures of the spine occurs kyphoscoliotic chest. This pathology difficult to treat and causes serious disruptions in the functioning of the heart and lungs.

Reasons for deformed thorax can be such as bad genetics and alcohol, illness, stress transferred to the future mother at 6-10 weeks of pregnancy, as this period is the formation of the chest.

At risk with acquired deformity of children in the period of active growth is from 5 to 8 and 11 to 15 years.

Symptoms of pathology

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Congenital deformation most clearly be seen at the age of 3 years. Retraction of the sternum is balanced or unbalanced.

Diagnostic methods

In addition to external inspection, to determine the degree of offset and identify changes in the internal organs used a chest x-ray, echocardiography, electrocardiogram and computed tomography.

Treatment for strains

Building a treatment plan is entirely dependent on the disease type and its severity.

Occasionally in the most simple cases, effective conservative therapy.

Apply massage, physiotherapy, gym and swimming pool.

Funnel changes

If the child has a funnel-shaped deformity of the chest, in the first stage of treatment of the disease use the so-called «vacuum bell», wherein above the funnel is formed a zone of negative pressure, which leads to the suction of the funnel in the opposite direction.

But it has a positive effect only if the patient is sufficiently malleable bones of the sternum. In other cases, the use of surgical intervention — stereocontrolled on the methodology of the NASS.

It is performed at the age of 6-7 years. The patient for 3-4 years is inserted through two incisions on the chest a pair of metal plates that straighten the sternum and force it to grow correctly. After they are removed, and the thorax continues to keep correct form.

Keel-shaped deformity

When keel-shaped deformation in the early stages of using special corsets.

In a later age the surgery is performed due to the presence of cosmetic defects or malfunctions of internal organs.

Flat chest

Flat chest treated conservatively.

Used in swimming pool, therapeutic and breathing exercises.

This allows you to increase your muscle correction form of the thorax and respiratory function of the lungs.

But the defect remains visible and can serve as a constant stress factor in patients who would feel physically inferior.

Cleft sternum

Cleft of the chest will be the most dangerous pathologies of the deformation.

If the operation is performed up to 1 year, the sternum is partially excised and carried out the stitching on the middle line, that enables the bones of a child latched to coalesce.

In a later age, holds a more complex operation in which in addition to resection of the sternum with the rib of autotransplantatov produce the expansion of space of the chest. Administered over the sternum titanium plate.

Complications

Basically it is various postoperative problems:

  • hemothorax — accumulation of blood in the pleural cavity;
  • suppuration of skin wounds;
  • pneumothorax -accumulation of gases in the pleural cavity;
  • subcutaneous hematoma;
  • postoperative pneumonia;
  • pleurisy — inflammation of pleural sheets;
  • possible postoperative sepsis;
  • paresis of the intestine;
  • various inflammatory processes of the heart.

Prevention

In order for your child to have a small risk of problems with the chest, you need to closely monitor his health.

To prevent chronic diseases associated with the respiratory system. To avoid the risk of mechanical injuries and burns of the thorax.

As soon as the child went to school, it is necessary to involve all possible physical labour to instill in him a love of sports.

Exercise is directed on strengthening of the spine and must include pull-UPS, exercise the lower and upper abdominals.

These activities will keep the muscles in tone and help to avoid bending of the thorax.

Video: Funnel-shaped chest deformity

The video shows a patient whose funnel-shaped deformity of the chest, and a complete cure of the disease with surgical intervention.