Diseases of leg joints (knees): types and symptoms
Modern medical practice shows that almost everyone in their lives faces problems in the joints of the feet. This fact is primarily due to the large load on the legs, as well as a number of other disorders in the body. There are different diseases of the joints of the feet, having certain characteristics and causes. Joint health plays a huge role in human life. Due to them provides cushioning with every movement of the body, it protects the bones from damage, especially during walking or running.
According to human anatomy, lower extremities are large hip, knee, ankle, and smaller joints of the toes. The largest is the hip that provides the greatest range of motion of the body. The knee joint is the largest of the condylar type. He sochinyaet the patella, tibia and femur, has extensor and flexor function. Ankle (hinge) joint connects the lower leg with the foot. Its structure has a complex structure, which has the function of rotation stops, her flexion and extension.
The types of illnesses and their complications
Diseases of the joints of the feet quite a lot, and they all have different origin. It can be congenital disease, genetic disease, deformity of the joints of the toes from bad shoes, a metabolic process in muscle and cartilage. Damage to joints can cause malnutrition and various injuries that have destructive to cartilage effects. The nature of such diseases are chronic and systemic, of great importance is the age factor. From the variety of problems in this area can highlight the most common disease is arthritis and osteoarthritis.
Arthritis is an inflammatory process. Arthritis of the joints of the lower extremities is:
Osteoarthritis is a deformation process of the joints, and most often it is manifested as:
- coxarthrosis of the hip cartilage.
- gonarthrosis of the knee cartilage.
Among the common joint disorders include such diseases as hip dysplasia, which often is the cause of its deformation (coxarthrosis). Problems with the ankle may be associated with violation of its intrauterine development, congenital dislocations of the foot or by the presence of clubfoot.
All joint diseases can be interrelated and have a causal relationship and occur separately localized only in one place and not spread to other joints.
Causes and symptoms of diseases
As already mentioned, the causes may be different. Arthritis is a disease in which inflamed inner layer of the joint capsule. It is accompanied by swelling around the affected area of extremities and limited in movement. Gouty arthritis is caused by disorders of salt metabolism in the body because of deposits of uric acid salts (urates). Gout is manifested most often in the toes, but in poor condition extends to other joints. In this type of arthritis marked increase in the formation of growths, severe pain, redness and increased temperature in the affected site.
Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory process, with different causes, and in most cases manifests itself in several joints at once. Cause of infectious arthritis are diseases of an infectious nature. For any form of arthritis there is pain and almost identical symptoms. Differs only in methods of diagnosis and treatment of arthritis. It is important to note that there is a genetic predisposition to arthritis and arthrosis. Even violations in the absorption of certain vitamins and minerals for nourishment of bones and joints can cause these diseases.
Osteoarthritis occurs due to the destruction of articular cartilage and usually affects the hip and knee joints.
If arthritis is left untreated, degenerative processes with inflammation. Any joint damage foot symptoms between similar marked pain, stiffness in motion, crepitation, swelling and increased muscle tone near them. Hip dysplasia usually detected in children at an early age, as well as clubfoot and other such diseases in this region. While there are external signs, as different leg length, the asymmetry of the folds of the thighs and buttocks.
Diagnosis and treatment of diseases
Diseases of bones and joints can diagnose only experienced and qualified doctor. For such a diagnosis is complete examination with x-ray study or CT scan. Make sure to do some tests. Only after a complete diagnosis make a diagnosis and prescribe appropriate treatment. For choice of tactics of treatment of greatest importance is determining the cause of joint disease. Any treatment primarily directed at eliminating the causes and pain.
Inflammatory processes in the joints treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, having analgesic effect.
There are a number of diseases in this field which cannot be cured. To ease the pain helps physiotherapy and warming. In critical situations in the treatment resort to surgical methods.
Dysplasia and clubfoot should be treated in the first years of a child’s life, strictly under the supervision of the podiatrist. For this purpose a special method of swaddling a baby. Also apply physiotherapy, massage, physiotherapy and the wearing of specialized orthopedic appliances.
In diseases of the feet, treatment should be not only medical. For maintaining joint health is very important to correct balanced diet. It is necessary to include in the diet food that helps restore cartilage. Alcohol and junk food should be fully excluded. It is equally essential to a healthy lifestyle, keep active, but get plenty of rest. It is useful to do every day workout for joints and muscles. Because it improves blood circulation and supplies the body with oxygen. It is essential to protect feet and knees from possible injury.