Dislocation of the foot: causes, diagnosis, first aid and treatment

What to do with dislocation of the foot: first aid and treatment

Dislocation of the foot often occurs in people who play sports or have in the past suffered serious injuries of musculoskeletal system.

In some cases, the joint can be damaged even if the wrong position of the feet. If signs of dislocation should immediately consult a doctor, because this pathology significantly impairs quality of life.

What is the injury?

The dislocated leg is a lesion of the lower extremities, which is characterized by violation of the integrity of the joint. In this situation, the damaged ligament-capsular apparatus and a shift in the articular surfaces of bones.

In the case of total dislocation of the surfaces of the bones are not touching, and when subluxation occurs partial contact. In any case, the dislocation is characterized by the violation of the integrity of the joint capsule, very often there is rupture of ligaments and tendons. If the person with such an injury fails to help, there may be very serious consequences.

The cause of trauma

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Isolated congenital and acquired dislocations.

Thus, congenital abnormalities are usually associated with incorrect position of the baby in the womb. For example, dislocation of the hip joint is observed in the case of the underdevelopment of its parts. In addition, the dislocation can be a consequence of a disease. These include:

  • arthritis;
  • arthritis;
  • polio;
  • osteomyelitis.

However, more often, sprains occur because of indirect injury in which the injury is remote from the disrupted joint. For example, when falling on the hand, a person can dislocate the shoulder joint.

In addition, the dislocation can be the consequence of a sudden movement that exceeds the norm of joint mobility. As a result of direct injury sprains occur much less frequently.

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Classification of sprains

Dislocations may be:

  • full;
  • incomplete or subluxation.

This classification is determined by the degree of displacement of the articular surfaces. At full dislocation of the they are not in contact, whereas in the case of subluxation is partial contact.

In addition, there are the following types of dislocations:

  • open;
  • closed;
  • fresh (less than 3 nights);
  • stale (about 3 weeks);
  • chronic (more than 3 weeks).

If damaged nerves or main vessels, we are talking about complicated dislocations. Injuries that cannot be handled using classical techniques, is called irreducible. If the dislocation develops on the background of the fracture, it is called perelomova.

Depending on the region of the isolated dislocations:

  • hip joint;
  • ankle;
  • knee joint;
  • of the foot;
  • toes.
  • hips.

Symptoms of injury

Dislocation of the foot has the typical symptoms:

  1. Pronounced pain. It appears at the time of injury and persists when trying to move or load the leg.
  2. Changing the shape of the joint. Edema may occur, swelling, bruising.
  3. The limitation of mobility. Sometimes there is complete immobilization of the limb.
  4. Numbness feet. This symptom is associated with the pressure on the blood vessels and pinched nerves.

Diagnostic methods

When the diagnosis of dislocation it is important that the history of traumatic injuries.

In addition, diagnostic studies include:

  1. Inspection. During this procedure, the doctor visually detect the deformation in the area of the joint, changing the length limbs and a forced situation.
  2. The study of the pulse on the affected limb. It is also necessary to determine its sensitivity.
  3. X-ray examination. With it is possible to determine the exact position of the ends of the joint. In addition, it allows to detect or exclude the presence of fracture or separation of tissue from bone.

First aid and subsequent treatment

First aid for dislocation of the foot is of paramount importance. It is important to know what to do with the dislocated leg in the first minutes after injury.

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The set of measures first aid

  • The first step is to completely immobilize the injured limb. To determine the exact diagnosis it is recommended to splint with locking elements – this will allow to exclude the possibility of movement.
  • It is not necessary to use pain medication, especially those that act as sleeping pills. As a sedative can be offered to the affected tea from lemon balm or mint.
  • To remove the tumor and reduce pain, you can use a compress with ice.
  • When fever or inflammation of the feet damaged, you should immediately consult a specialist.
  • In the case of minor dislocation can be worn on the injured limb elastic bandages or special stockings.

General information on treatment

Treatment of the dislocated leg is in its manually reset. There are many ways of implementing this procedure – it all depends on the localization of the damage. While there is a perception that the quality of anesthesia and muscle relaxation, method of repositioning does not matter.

This procedure must be performed slowly, in no event it is impossible to make sharp movements. If it is successful, you can hear the distinctive click. It restores passive mobility, and lost a spring resistance.

After that, the patient is made to Immobilise the limb until it is fully healed joint capsule. For this purpose a plaster cast.

To avoid secondary displacement, it is not recommended to step on the damaged leg. In case of severe pain and prescribe anti-inflammatory painkillers.

Treatment of the injury depending on the localization

In the case if the person is a dislocated hip, after being set for six months, he had to use crutches – this is to prevent necrosis of the femoral head.

If a person has pronounced symptoms of dislocated finger reduction is assigned to conduction or local anesthesia. Then for 2 weeks the patient applied the plaster Longuet. To prevent repeated dislocation of the damaged finger for 7-10 days fix by means of spokes.

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Recovery after injury

After immobilization of the injured limb the patient is assigned physiotherapy and therapeutic exercise. The specialists recommend to use special ointment for sprained legs, which allows to eliminate pain and to cope with the swelling.

The use of this ointment from the dislocated leg valid in the period of wearing the cast. Before applying medicines it is removed, then return to the place.

Prevention

To reduce the likelihood of dislocation, during training traumatic types of sports, it is imperative to use the available remedies.

Those people who had in the past, such a trauma, after treatment, you must continue to do the exercises assigned by the physiotherapist. This allows you to strengthen the muscles and ligaments to give them elasticity. This will significantly reduce the likelihood of re-injury.

The dislocated leg is a pretty serious disease, which can cause dangerous health effects. Therefore, if you receive any injuries should go to the doctor – this will help to prevent the development of complications.

Video: Reposition of the hip dislocation by Kocher