Dislocation of the foot: how others can help the victim
What is a sprained foot? The foot of a person ends with a foot and performs the basic supporting function. It is on the feet of the person puts pressure on the whole mass of your body. In addition to the supporting function, the foot serves as a spring, preventing the human body from impact shock when walking, thereby preserving his organs and musculoskeletal system from premature wear.
To set where the end stop and starts the Shin, you need to mentally draw a straight line which passes through the upper edge of the ankles. Nature has determined the structure of the foot as a very flexible and sustainable design, able to withstand external damage and negative effects. Therefore, the cases of dislocation of the foot are less common than fractures.
To understand how complex may be the problem, if there is a dislocation of the foot subluxation of the foot, it is necessary to consider its design. It divides into the sole and the rear, between which the separator has outer and inner edge of the foot. Its posterior part consists of the heel, called in medicine of the heel bone. An interesting difference between the length of right and left feet, the last a little shorter. In addition to the toes, which are components of the apparatus of this bone of the foot includes the Tarsus and metatarsus. The last part consists of five short tubular bones. The thumb consists of two phalanges, and four fingers — three phalanges.
If the structure of the two parts of the foot is clear, then the Tarsus is more complex. Its design includes 7 bones, among which the talus and calcaneus, cuboid, and scaphoid, and, in addition, inner, outer and intermediate bones in the form of wedges. It should be noted that the talus, which is limited to the surface in the form of a sickle, is a meniscus — the largest in the entire human body cartilage.
At foot are plentiful different joints, which her bones are connected to each other. Among them, the ankle, and the joints that connect the bones of the Tarsus. These joints there are four, two of which form a transverse joint of the Tarsus. The bones of the Tarsus and metatarsus are connected by three joints combined into one, with the name of the joint of Lisfranc.
In addition, the joints are located in the Tarsus and connect its components. Another group of compounds is located between the phalanges and the metatarsus, and between phalanges.
The large number of bones and joints requires the presence of a considerable number of ligaments, which strengthen the foot. Talus-calcaneal interosseous ligament is of particular importance among these ligaments and the function of strengthening the transverse tarsal joint. The long plantar ligament, which plays the role of locking of the longitudinal arch, clearly visible on the sole.
Elasticity of gait give the bones of the Tarsus and metatarsus. These connections are made in the form of the muscles and ligaments that form progeniuses vaults. In accordance with the fact that the foot has five metatarsals, it has five longitudinal arches. These arches are connected to each other by a transverse arch. Thus, the foot is a very complex structure, designed to experience the regular heavy and heavy load. Violations it require the intervention of a specialist.
Reasons that result in trauma to the foot
A steady shift in the foot bones in the joints are uncommon, since the presence of such a large number of components greatly limits the possibility of its individual elements to shift relative to each other. But if it happens, which is possible only under the strong damaging effects, the doctors diagnosed a sprained foot.
This impact occurs when the victim falls from a hill on foot with the different parties affects a huge destructive force. Due to the fact that such an effect occurs from different sides and different parts of the foot exposed to the damaging effects, doctors diagnose different types of disease. This can happen both at home and on the street.
If the patient fell, with emphasis on the outer edge of the foot, there is a dislocation of the talus-calcaneal-navicular joint (or subtalar dislocation). When this happens the displacement of the foot inward while turning the sole of the other foot, which is not subjected to deformation. If the bottom section unfolds in the other direction, it leads to other types of subtalar dislocation. But these kinds of injuries are rare. X-ray will show that there was a shift of the whole foot, and its talus remains in the ankle joint.
If such is diagnosed dislocation of the foot, you need in the shortest time possible to do a closed reduction. Otherwise, the blood vessels are compressed, which leads to disruption of blood flow.
The delay in the provision of quality health care can cause irreversible tissue changes left without oxygen supply. To sit at home not work. Patient needs General anesthesia, which is carried out after reduction of the joint. Instead of General anesthesia may introduce pain medication directly into the bone. As soon as the anesthetic or analgesic effect, begin to carry out the direct reduction. Perform movements opposite to those which led to the injury. Once the bones and the joints up to their place on the foot, a plaster which covers the leg from the toes to the hips. In this fixed position the leg should be in for 1.5 months. In cases where you could not hold a closed reduction, are urgently needed surgical intervention.
In those cases when the drop occurs dislocation of one, usually the first metatarsal bone or all at once, the doctors diagnosed a dislocation of the foot at the joint of Lisfranc. This type of injury can be together with a fracture of metatarsus. This type of injury can be aimed in different directions. This dislocation of the foot requires urgent closed reduction, because it disturbed the flow of blood. Spravku performed under General anesthesia by simultaneous drawing of the foot. The hood make for the edge of the foot whilst pressure base plusne bones that protrude. Once all the bones are reduced, the foot is fixed a few metal spokes and a plaster bandage for a period of 1.5 to 2 months. A bandage fixed the leg and foot. If you set the bones failed, surgery is carried out.
How others can help the victim
What to do in cases of injury, in which there are symptoms of dislocation? If indicated by signs or symptoms, treatment own is dangerous.
In no case should one try to straighten the joints and bones themselves.
This will only make the patient even more difficult. But before you treat the victim, he should be given some pain medication and immobilize an injured leg. This can be done with tires made of any improvised things that are at home or on the street. Goes with some kind of Board or sturdy branch. After this it is necessary to take measures to deliver the victim to the emergency room in the shortest possible time.