Dislocation of the foot — symptoms, first aid, treatment and rehabilitation

What to do with dislocation of the foot: first aid and treatment

Dislocation of the foot is the displacement of the bones which articulate in the articular capsule, with partial or complete loss of their physiological contact.

This pathology has many varieties, each of which has a distinctive individual characteristics.

Theoretically, the dislocation may occur in any joint, despite the fact that the powerful joints strengthen ligaments and bones close.

Trauma to the lower leg may be accompanied by rupture of the joint capsule, soft tissue, or ligaments.

Classification pathology

In the foot of man has 26 bones, which consist of three divisions: the phalanges, metatarsal and tarsal. Depending on the localization of the pathology of dislocations of the foot can be divided into the following anatomical types:

  • The ankle is not found in isolation, combined with other types of dislocations. Occurs when external or internal exposure of the foot, and also at the time of the forced traumatic extension or a direct blow to the foot;
  • Subtalar – appears when you damage the rear region of the foot or the fall of gravity on the leg. Very rare, most often with a fracture of the talus. Palpation is characterized by soreness at the site of the Achilles tendon and in the area of the calcaneus. May cause the development of trophic disorders and difficult to treat;
  • Shaparova joint in isolation is very rare, due to the presence of dense intra-articular ligaments that hold bespredelnoe joint. Shaparova dislocation of the joint is partial and is accompanied by fracture of the tarsal bones. Pathology occurs when the impact on the foot of heavy objects such as car wheels;
  • The articulation of Lisfranc is not common and has the same mechanism of injury and clinical presentation, and other dislocations. Isolated injuries do not occur;
  • Metatarsophalangeal – common type of damage, pathogenic which is based on a large interarticular gap and the absence of periarticular locking apparatus. This pathology mostly appears when the presence of diabetes;
  • Interphalangeal – more rare pathology which is characterized by the dislocation of proximal interphalangeal joint. Occurs when hitting hard object or falling on the area of the flattened foot.
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Dislocations of the foot by the amount of mismatch of the surfaces of the joints can be divided into the following types:

  • Full – a rare pathological condition in which there is an absolute mismatch of the articular surfaces. Is accompanied by severe damage of the ligaments and fractures of the ankle;
  • The exterior is characterized by a partial mismatch between joint surfaces and occurs at the time of the tucking foot to the side or outward. This type of pathology is often accompanied by fracture of the inner ankle area;
  • Internal – occurs when the exposure of the foot inward. This combined dislocation with internal fracture of the ankle;
  • The back is formed with a sharp forced bend of the foot to the sole or as a result of a sharp kick in the back area.

Symptoms and signs of disease

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Regardless of the type and form of dislocation of the foot the symptoms of this disease is almost the same. The victim first feels acute and severe pain in the damaged region, which together with the ankle is greatly deformed and swollen. In some cases, in place of a dislocation formed bruising and lividity, indicating that the damage to the blood vessels.

Depending on the type of injury can distinguish the different signs of dislocation of the foot, and diagnosed a variety of injuries:

  • For the ankle joint characterized by deformity of the foot, which is accompanied by severe pain. In this case, the leg become impossible;
  • When subtalar dislocation changes the shape of the foot that occurs simultaneously with a sharp pain;
  • Milusheva dislocation can be determined if the existence of unbearable pain in the foot at the time of physical activity. In this case, the swelling appears very quickly;
  • Damage to the metatarsal bones is accompanied by severe pain manifestations and extension or shortening of the foot in the front region;
  • Dislocation of the fingers is characterized by deformity of the joints and pain in the damaged region.
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Diagnostic methods

Diagnosis of dislocation of the foot is made quite simple with the help of conducting a physical examination of the injured extremity. To confirm the diagnosis it is recommended to take x-rays.

First aid

Competent and timely first aid in dislocation of the foot is half of the success of rehabilitation.

What should I do in case of suspected dislocation of the foot:

  1. Fixation at damage feet the first step is to immobilize the joint with a splint improvised, using, for example a ruler or Board;
  2. Pain relief — recommended for pain relief take over-the-counter analgesics;
  3. Removal of edema development of edema can be slowed down with the cooling ointment or applying to the injured part of the leg warmer ice.

After first aid it is necessary to deliver the patient to the emergency room for diagnosis and treatment. To set yourself the damaged area of the foot is not recommended.

Medical treatment if the damage to the foot

Treatment of dislocation of the foot differs depending on the kind of damage limbs:

  1. In any case of injury the first step is to reposition the bones in the correct position, followed by repeated x-rays;
  2. If closed reduction fails and causes additional damage, there is a need for surgical intervention, due to which prevents the appearance of deforming arthrosis;
  3. After reduction to the damaged area of the lower extremity sterile bandage from gypsum, which is removed after a certain period of time (3-12 weeks).

Recovery after injury

After the procedure the reduction and treatment of dislocation of the foot, a period of rehabilitation.

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For a speedy recovery after suffering a pathology of the patient is advised to perform integrated studies of physical therapy and to wear only orthopedic shoes.

Thanks to these measures, the developed joints of the injured limb, and prevents atrophy of muscles.

In the presence of pain syndrome it is recommended to use the analgesic cream that not only relieves discomfort but also helps to eliminate inflammation and swelling. Fulfilling all the requirements of the doctor in the rehabilitation period, the patient can significantly speed up the recovery process and prevent the development of complications.

Video: How to diagnose a dislocation and to provide first aid