Dislocation of the jaw: treatment, reduction
Often people think that the damage to the lower jaw can be at impact, fall or trauma. Similar pathology may develop for other reasons. This may be a result of sneezing, yawning, talking and laughing.
Dislocation of the jaw — a violation of the location of the head joint offset in the front or back side. Classification injuries of the lower jaw allows to distinguish two main groups: anterior dislocations, posterior displacement. Damage to the lower jaw can be single or double sided.
Reasons for the formation of the anterior mandibular dislocation
Front stretching the joint muscles of the jaw, sometimes in both young people and elderly. The head of the mandible is able to move inward or outward, but this process occurs very rarely, and the phenomena characteristic concomitant injury: fracture of the condylar process and dislocation. Such troubles appear in females in connection with a poor development of the ligaments of the joint and the small size of the mandibular fossa, located in the temporal bone. The onset of trauma contribute to many factors:
- the reduction of the tonus of the ligaments;
- the growth of the tissue elements of the joint;
- degenerative processes in the discs connecting the joints.
Happen in patients with habitual dislocations of the lower jaw. Thus there is a change in its shape and breaks down the process of closing the teeth. Dislocated jaw when yawning is accompanied by its deformation and extension of the bone forward and slightly to the side. The loss of the head of the jaw joint is observed in such conditions as:
- sanation of oral cavity;
- intubation during surgery.
Dislocation of the mandible is divided into the following types: usual and having an acute manifestation; unilateral and bilateral.
The symptoms and clinical picture of the damage to the joint
Damage is accompanied by disturbance of the location of the head of the jaw joint relative to the glenoid recess of the temporal bone. This pathology is the main cause of the widely open mouth of the patient. Chin if bilateral injury is downward and slightly forward. The patient is unable to pronounce words, can’t chew food. Appears gipersalivacia: constantly slightly opened mouth, lips stretched.
A few other symptoms are observed when the dislocation is formed on one side of the lower part of the face: the chin is slightly moved in the opposite dislocation direction. Mouth slightly open, but the patient cannot close the lips. Reliable solution to the problems associated with the changes that occurred in the mandible, differential diagnosis and subsequent treatment. The doctor can make a correct diagnosis, a comparative diagnosis of unilateral dislocation of the lower jaw with a similarly located fracture. In violation of the integrity of the bones of the mandibles are missing the protrusion of the chin in front and to the side opposite to that where the pain is felt.
If there was bilateral dislocation of the lower jaw, the doctor analyzes the situation in order to exclude a fracture of the branches of the mandibles, which is accompanied by displacement of bone fragments. Patients have symptoms such as:
- extension chin forward;
- provencethe expression.
When the dislocation, the patient hardly opens his mouth but can move the lower jaw, without experiencing acute pain. A patient with a fracture, can not wide open the mouth because of the emergence of acute pain. In individuals who had sustained an injury of the lower jaw, not felt pain in the region of its edges. Fractures doctor diagnoses a shadow from fracture.
As a rule sprain with dislocation of mandibular joint, the patient is not threatened with serious trouble. The doctor can make a correct diagnosis based on the clinical picture and medical history of the patient.
Help with the front dislocation by the method of Hippocrates
Treatment of dislocation begins with a visit to the doctor. Themselves the patient can not get rid of the problem. Reduction of the mandible involves the use of sterile wipes. When properly selected the position of the head of the patient, the masseter muscle completely relax. By separating the head joint down and with simultaneous displacement of the jaw going back the normal position of the articular heads: they are in the pit, while you hear a special sound of clicking.
Doctor, upravlaushiy dislocation of the lower jaw, is obliged to follow the fingers of his hands in order to avoid traumatizing their teeth patient. P. V. Khodorovich modernized the elimination of such pathology. His method is based on the exclusion of trauma to the hands of a specialist in any location of the nail phalanges in the oral cavity of the patient.
If dislocation has occurred from both sides, observe the order of reduction, removing the inconvenience from one side and then the other. The process may be somewhat delayed, if you are not able to fix the head of the bone, while the two sides. The time it takes a physician to perform the procedure depends on the degree of relaxation of the masticatory muscles, the state of the psyche of patient and his weight. If the injury of the mandible accompanied by severe pain, the doctor can immediately reduce the articular head of the bone. Treatment consists in carrying out prior anesthesia and distraction of the patient from manipulation specialist.
The elimination of the dislocation by the method of Brahmana-Gershuni
Treatment of injuries of the jaw include reflex response of muscles of mastication muscles on the face in response to pain stimulus. A tap on the coronoid processes allows the physician to straighten the jaw for a short period of time. Scientist G. A. Blechman have repeatedly recommended a similar technique to the doctors to reposition dislocation.
The creation of a more modified way of eliminating damage to the jaw belongs to Y. D. gershoni. Reduction of dislocation can produce not only a doctor but also the patient’s relatives. It is this technique allows the reduction of the dislocation in older persons, not using the fingers, introduced into the patient’s mouth.
If the reasons for the dislocation of the jaw is fixed in a short period of time, the victim has no complications. Some discomfort the patient will experience during the chewing of food. After reviewing all the symptoms of damage and providing first aid, the doctor prescribes physiotherapy.
Re-dislocation and elimination of subluxation
In exceptional cases formed the chronic sprain of the lower jaw, which requires a different method of therapy. Treatment of re-dislocation is carried out according to the method of Popescu. After elimination of damage the doctor places the sling and conducts the course of mechanical treatment. Reduction jaw anaesthesia is given. In some cases, appointed by surgery. The disease is treated successfully, but in some cases, the patient developed contracture of the lower jaw.
There are people who have trauma to the lower jaw occurs several times a day. Habitual dislocation of the jaw occurs in patients with gout, rheumatism, epilepsy, encephalitis. Usually the patient himself sets his jaw, not applying for medical assistance.
Irrational therapy of acute dislocation leads to repetitive damage to the jaw. With poor care and inefficient immobilization of the articular capsule pererastayut, therefore comes the usual dislocation of the joint. The doctor starts the treatment based on inspection data and taking into account the underlying disease of the patient. Using drugs to treat the main disease and hold the splinting of the upper jaw. The surgical treatment has several phases of therapy:
- change the height of the articular tubercle;
- the extension of the mandibular fossa;
- the influence on the ligaments by the method of strengthening it.
When subluxation of the mandible the most common signs of damage are displacement of the elements of the joint in its upper or lower part. Head motion of the jaw going forward, while grabbing the intra-articular disk. It is deformed, bent, produces a characteristic crunching and snapping noise. Subluxation of the jaw joint is observed in people suffering from gout, rheumatism of the joints. The therapy for metabolic changes in the body of the patient, denture, overlay immobilizing bandages. Treatment can be successful if it is started promptly and is performed under the supervision of a physician.
What is the cause of back sprains
The first and the most common cause is a blow to the chin. Sometimes injury causes destruction of teeth, and repetitive yawning. In this case, the establishment of the joint head between the mastoid process and the mandibular fossa. If the damaged bone in the external auditory canal, the patient displays the following symptoms:
- spasmodic compression of the jaws;
- breach of a provision of the chin;
- the closure of the mouth;
- shortness of breath.
Treatment of back dislocation of the jaw is to establish the causes of illness, which a doctor. He captures the condyles in the desired position, and imposes a special bandage for 3 weeks. The result of the activities fails to achieve full recovery and mobility in the joint.
The frequent recurrence of dislocation of the lower jaw becomes a serious problem for humans. The reliable solution is a conservative treatment of the underlying disease and surgical treatment followed by the imposition of immobilizing means. This eliminates damage to the jaw or to minimize the frequency of recurrent dislocations.