Dislocation of the patella (habitual and always existing): symptoms, treatment, consequences
Symptoms, treatment and consequences of patellar dislocation
The patella is a small, but despite this is a very important bone in the human body, which is localized in the knee joint (in front of).
In fact, the patella is considered a sesamoid bone, those bones in medical terminology is called bones, which are located in tendons. Sesamoid bones not so much as might seem at first glance, the patella is considered to be the largest one.
The immediate function of the patella, plays an important role in human life. The bone is first necessary for each of us in order to increase the traction of the muscle and increase its efficiency, because the sesamoid bones work on the principle of the unit.
The patella has a protective function – it prevents the very knee from damage and injuries. In most cases, performing the function of protecting the knee, suffers patella. According to statistics, sprains and fractures of the patella in medical practice, there are almost more often than other injuries
What is a patellar dislocation
Under the patellar dislocation should be understood the displacement of the bone forward and its quite a strong contact with the outer condyles of the femur.
In most cases of trauma with similar injuries treated professional athletes, as their activity is associated with enhanced physical activity, which can not affect the condition.
The degree of injury of the patella is diagnosed and defined as a complete or not complete congenital dislocation of this bone.
At the same time, depending on the degree of lateral displacement of the dislocation can be divided into the following subgroups:
- A slight degree of offset. With her person does not feel any pain and discomfort. Diagnosed injury for a random medical examination.
- The average degree of bias. The main manifestation in this case can be considered a change of gait of the person, it becomes unstable and is accompanied by frequent falls. How much is injured in the sagittal plane, depends on the manifestation of pain.
- Severe dislocation. Is characterized by the inability to move the knee and severe pain in the region of the bone. It is noted a sharp increase in the tension of the muscles of the thigh, which only aggravates the health of the patient worse.
There is also a classification depending on the clinical course of the injury:
- dislocation always existing;
- dislocation, which occurs suddenly after improper formulation of the patella;
- the dislocation of the familiar, in this case the bone is displaced each time once the joint makes any movement.
Pathological dislocation are also divided into several groups. These include the following:
- dislocation of the nerve agent (is a consequence of total or partial paralysis of one muscle);
- the habitual dislocation (occurs due to the weakening of the capsule, muscles and all ligaments).
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Habitual patellar dislocation is an injury that is repeated at each complete movement of the previously injured knee joint. Most often this type of trauma suffered by athletes who are engaged in artistic gymnastics and team sports.
To provoke a valgus injury may location of the knee joint and weakness of the internal head of the quadriceps muscle, the bones of the thigh, weakness of the capsule of the joint itself, which can develop as a result of previous damage.
This injury is likely to get in position when the leg on which reliance is made, is a half-bent position, and the torso does rotate within its axis, and at the time of falling.
That can cause injuries
Lead to dislocation of the patella following reasons:
- sharp turns of the body;
- strong blows to the kneecap;
- falling from height;
- carried out knee surgery or ligament;
- physiologically high placement of the patella;
- congenital abnormal changes in bone structure that lead to permanent injuries.
Doctors long ago identified a specific group of symptoms which easily can be determined that the person has received a patellar dislocation. In such a case, it is very important to provide timely first aid to the injured in the shortest time and deliver it in medical institution.
Injury manifested by the following symptoms:
- the appearance of sharp and intense pain in the injured extremity;
- patella may be deformed (to increase in size because of the resulting edema);
- with careful examination you can notice in which direction there has been a shift of the patella;
- the victim lost the ability to make flexor and extensor movement at the knee;
- over time the pain becomes more severe;
- there is no possibility to bear weight on leg;
- injured limb swells greatly;
- may appear red spots on the skin.
Remember that before the ambulance in any case it is impossible to carry out the straightening of the bone, it can lead to irreversible consequences!
Diagnostic criteria and methods
For the diagnosis of the injury in most cases the surgeon resorts to non-invasive methods. The main of which are as follows:
- X-ray examination (for more accurate information images are produced in multiple projections).
- Magnetic resonance imaging (provides the ability to exclude a meniscal tear, patella fracture, torn knee ligaments and hemorrhage). However, she has no negative impact on the human body and is absolutely safe for health.
- Computed tomography also presents enough information for the correct diagnosis.
- In that case, if the above options diagnostics do not give the desired result of the method of arthroscopy.
On the basis of the results of research specialist paints further treatment and recovery for the patient.
Treatment and recovery
In most cases, treatment of dislocation does not apply quickly the intervention, most professionals turn to conservative ways to restore patella:
- use cold compresses to reduce pain;
- introduction intramuscular pain medications;
- after that there is a direct reduction of the damaged bone;
- on the damaged knee in a mandatory manner a plaster bandage for a duration of 3 to 6 weeks;
- prerequisite for this is the carrying out of physiotherapeutic procedures;
- after removing a cast is performed repeated x-rays;
- rehabilitation activities are carried out, both in hospital and at home.
In the surgical intervention need only patients with chronic and habitual patellar dislocation. In each case select the most effective and safe method. Particularly popular are such:
- plastic medial ligaments (open);
- transplantation of the distal attachment;
- arthroscopic normalization of the patella.
After surgery on damaged knee immobilizer applied specialized bandage. The recovery period in this case can last from 2 to 3 months, subject to all recommendations of the doctor.
Complications and preventive measures
When properly conducted treatment or surgical intervention of the negative consequences after patellar dislocation can be avoided. However, there is a likelihood of involuntary primary dislocation and the slow destruction of the ligaments and cartilage of the knee.
To prevent negative consequences and to avoid accidental injury to the knee need to be as careful and attentive. Not necessary to be overly engaged in hard physical sports, every day to do hard physical work.
In cases of suspected patellar dislocation must urgently seek medical help.