Disorders of the joints, its main types, characteristics and causes

Congenital or acquired disorders of the joints affected in one way or another for nearly a third of the population of the globe. From this disease today affects not only the elderly but also very young people and small children. When adults neglect the basics of a healthy lifestyle, have addictions to Smoking, alcohol, drugs, do not adhere to a balanced diet, they are often the kids are born with congenital joint anomalies.

The causes of joint problems

Патология суставов, её основные виды, признаки и причиныJoint disease as the result of excessive loads on the joints during heavy work or sports training and the lack of movement during prolonged sitting at a computer monitor. Affects the joints of a man of his excessive weight. Growing joint pathology in a variety of forms, also because of the bad ecological situation on the planet.

There are malformations of the spine and other joints of the body for the following main reasons.

  • Frequent injuries of bones, tendons, ligaments surrounding the joint soft tissues. Dislocation, fracture, sprain, they are most susceptible to professional athletes and people whose work is connected with constant physical strain.
  • Physical aging of cartilage and periarticular bone. Losing with age the natural elasticity of the ligaments starts easily damaged from stress. In the elderly due to the resultant brittleness of the bones often occurs their fracture, which also affects the articular joints.
  • Diseases of the autoimmune and endocrine systems. They disrupt normal metabolic reactions, blood flow to the limbs and trigger the disease process in the joints.
  • The hereditary factor. It is proved that the articular disease most often affects people who have this genetic predisposition.
  • Any congenital anomaly of the spine. This leads to dysfunction of the musculoskeletal system, this inevitably affected joints.
  • Excessive body weight of the patient. This has a negative impact on joint health, they always have a pathological level of pressure.
  • Infectious processes acute or chronic in nature. These include sexually transmitted, colds, viral diseases and tuberculosis and other diseases.
  • Intra-articular deposition of salts. It leads to increased friction of bone surfaces against each other, to their injury and to the onset of inflammation.
  • The uneven distribution of physical stress on the body.
  • A sedentary lifestyle does not allow the joints to develop normally. Inside the joint capsule develops a pathological process. Due to overuse of the muscles and ligaments have time to adapt to the applied stress and becomes inflamed.

    Common symptoms of diseases of the joints

    Different pathologies of the spine and other joints of the human body have their specific characteristics. However, there are some symptoms common to all joint diseases. These include pain in the area where the formed fracture, dislocation or developed internal inflammation. Pain may be sharp, occurring with movement or pulling, aching, bothering, usually at night. In any case, the pain indicates danger for the body. As soon as periarticular pain, you should immediately see a doctor and get tested for an accurate diagnosis.

    Also symptoms are thickening or dense formations in the joint. Induration often occur in the phalanges of the fingers. Possible violation of joint mobility. Typically, the stiffness in the movements manifested after rest, like the joint work developed. Without timely treatment, over time the situation will escalate quickly.

    The potential difficulties with the implementation of small movements. The impaired motor skills of the fingers indicates the beginning or progression of the disease. In addition, possible swelling of the damaged zone, flushing of the skin in the area of inflammation, the local temperature rise in the joint.

    Патология суставов, её основные виды, признаки и причиныTo find out what kind of spine pathology in a patient or a disease of the articular joints he suffers, it is necessary to make a radiograph of the damaged area. In addition, you need to pass the clinical and immunological tests, to pass the differential diagnostic examination.

    Types of joint pathologies and their features

    The emergence of diseases of the joints contribute to a variety of stressful situations faced by people. The risk groups are also people living in areas with a harsh climate. From a very extensive list of joint diseases are most common currently, the following diseases.

  • Osteoarthritis is the most common chronic joint disease of inflammatory and degenerative nature, in which there is degenerative destruction of the cartilage plate.
  • Bursitis – inflammation inside the joint capsule, against which there is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the joint cavity.
  • Arthritis, including rheumatoid – defeat of joints of various etiology. Can occur in acute or chronic form. Often affects multiple bone joints.
  • Tendonitis – when this inflammatory response affects muscle tendons and can lead to joint stiffness.
  • Synovitis – inflammation of the sheath that covers the joint cavity from the inside. Affects, as a rule, elbow, knee, ankle and wrist joints.
  • Ankylosis – the ends articulated in the joint bones or cartilage spliced among themselves and cause joint immobility. There are often intra-articular fibrous splicing. The reason for the formation of ankylosis may be a fracture, infection, wound.
  • Патология суставов, её основные виды, признаки и причиныPlantar fasciitis, or heel spur – calcaneal tendon due to frequent microtrauma or tears become inflamed. The result is painful on the heel is formed by an abnormal growth of.
  • Contracture – occurs inside the joint contraction of the muscle, tendon tissue, which causes limitation of a limb.
  • Gout periarticular deposition of salts. Manifested acute recurrent arthritis.
  • Coxarthrosis is one of the types of arthritis, which deformed up to immobility, hip.
  • In addition to these diseases, there are numerous developmental abnormalities of the spine that are experts in a separate group.

    Malformations of the vertebral column

    All anomalies of the spine can be divided into congenital and acquired. Cause of acquired heart diseases often becomes a fracture of any vertebra. The incident deforms the spine and disrupts the anatomic integrity of the spine. Depending on the place of fracture, injuries of the spine are divided into:

    • compression;
    • fracture of the spinous processes;
    • injuries transverse vertebral apophysis
    • cervical injury;
    • fracture of the vertebral body in the thoracic or lumbar spine;
    • wedge-shaped fractures;
    • traumatic fracture of the coccyx or sacrum.

    On the fracture pattern, distinguish rotational, explosive, comminuted, avulsion fracture, and whiplash, flexion and other spinal damage. Among the congenital often found such abnormal development of the spine as the underdevelopment of the handles or bodies of the vertebrae themselves, fusion between two or three vertebrae, delayed development of vertebral bodies in which appears the so-called hemivertebrae. Hemivertebrae can be attributed to frequent developmental abnormalities of the spine, because they arise in different sections of the spinal cord.

    There are developmental abnormalities of the spine as occipitalization and subluxation of the Atlanto-axial joint. Occipitalization called fusion of the occipital bone with the first cervical vertebra. The threat subluxation spinal cord compression by the odontoid process of the second vertebra is not fused with his body.

    Syndrome, Klippel-feil also refers to the abnormal development of the spine, as in this disease there is a connection between several of the vertebrae of the cervical. Often spliced with each other also the vertebrae of the upper thoracic.

    While the intervertebral discs are missing and the bodies of the vertebrae themselves much thicken. The external symptom of this disease is a straight, slightly reclined position of the head of the patient, lack of head turns in different directions.

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