Dysplasia of the knee joint

Glenoid dysplasia is characterized by abnormal changes in the connective tissue. The most common dysplasia of the knee joint, less frequently observed elbow dysplasia, which result in limb acquires increased mobility. Connective tissue fibers play the role of a «glue» for flexible elements – cartilage and synovial membranes. Healthy the degree of stretch does not exceed permissible limits, while the affected cartilage tissue becomes too flexible: when dysplasia limb can be turned out at an unnatural angle and does not retain a natural position even under light load.

Dysplasia is manifested in structural changes in the connective tissue, but this disease is characterized by a complex lesion, which suffer adjacent to the joint, muscles and bones. Pathology is congenital in ninety-nine percent of cases out of a hundred, in a later age the disease is much rarer. The majority of the diagnosis of dysplasia in a child one year later is a consequence of the omission of doctors and parents who did not pay due attention to the pathological changes of tissues in the first months of a child’s life.Дисплазия коленного сустава


Factors of development of dysplasia

Dysplasia of the knee joints, is usually a congenital disease. On average, the disease is fixed in 6 newborns out of 1,000, making it one of the most common congenital abnormalities. Dysplasia of the knee joints in newborns can develop due to the following factors.

  • Genetic predisposition. If one of the direct ancestors of the unborn child in the direct ascending line suffered from this pathology, high probability of hereditary transmission of the disease.
  • Bad habits. If one of the parents, especially the mother, abusing alcohol, smoke or take drugs, the baby automatically is at higher risk of congenital abnormalities, including the development of dysplasia of the hip.
  • Intoxication. During pregnancy, the expectant mother shares with the child all one way or another ingested any toxins, synthetic materials, medicines and other potentially harmful substances can lead to improper development of cartilage.
  • Food. The cartilage formation of the unborn child in the womb depends on the «building material», which comes from the mother’s body. Improper diet can create a deficiency of nutrients needed for healthy cartilage.
  • The mother’s illness. Infectious and chronic diseases of the mother during pregnancy adversely affect fetal development.
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    Rarely the disease may be fixed in a later age. The cause of the disease in the adult, is exposure to very toxic compounds on the cartilage tissue, which decompose connective fibers.

    This phenomenon can be observed in humans after long-term drug use or staying in adverse environmental conditions. In this case, in addition to the destruction of the knee, possible elbow dysplasia and cervical.

     


    Symptoms

    Dysplasia of the knee is quite difficult to detect at first sight. The main emphasis in the diagnosis is made on a thorough medical examination. A single visual inspection can determine the presence of pronounced manifestations of the disease, which represent themselves in the relevant circumstances, but in General, the pathology may manifest itself quite weak. At home the main assistant in the detection of dysplasia can only be your vigilance. Joint dysplasia is characterized by the following symptoms.

  • Asymmetry. If one limb of the child is visually shorter than the other, it says the wrong location of the bones due to the relaxing elements of the joint. When dysplasia of the feet or hands of the child apart unevenly.
  • Dysfunction of the motor apparatus. Due to changes in the configuration of the joint the child begins to walk later than their peers, when walking trying to stand on tiptoes, feet turning in or out.
  • Hyper-mobility. Children’s joints are by default more mobile than in an adult, but if the limb is excessively curved or bent at an angle substantiate, it is best to consult with a specialist. In the structure of joint looseness is felt.
  • Pain. Dysplasia often causes displacement of the joint head that can cause injury and pain.
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    In an adult the symptoms are manifested similarly, with the amendment that fixing the symptoms is the patients themselves. Manifestations of dysplasia often do not bring the baby any discomfort. Largely depends on timely diagnosis of the child’s parents.

    Treatment of the disease, which was defined in the first months of a child’s life, conservative. If the pathology is diagnosed after one year, without surgery is not enough.


    Dysplasia cervical

    It deserves a separate description dysplasia of the cervical spine, which also has a place in medical practice. It should be noted that this disease is significantly different from the same pathology of large joints, due to the complex structure of the neck. In General, the term «cervical dysplasia» is a General definition a group of disorders of the structure of the cervical spine. In this case, it may be scoliosis of the cervical, dysplasia of the spine or hypoplastic defect. That is, the defeat of the cervical is not always related to the classical dysplasia joint that must be taken into account.

    Dysplasia of the cervical spine is a generic term. We should define what is meant by this diagnosis. If malformation of the cervical the defeat of the joints formed due to insufficient development of the muscles that pull the vertebrae to one side.Дисплазия коленного сустава

    Displicente scoliosis of the cervical occurs because of metabolic disorders, which causes curvature of the spine. And only the very rare dysplasia in the cervical spine, is directly related to dysplasia of the hip.


    Methods of effective treatment

    Initially, the treatment of dysplasia conservative under the age of one year, the baby plastic joints and a full recovery will be a relatively straightforward manipulations. The more time is missed, the less chances of recovery. Depending on the lesion, conservative treatment is effective up to one year of age (if we are talking about dysplasia of the knee and elbow) or up to 14-16 years (in the case of pathology of the cervical spine).

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    Conservative treatment is a comprehensive therapy and consists of the following components.

    Method

    Impact

    Fixation. Through orthopedic appliances affected joint is fixed in a natural position. This correction method is particularly effective in the first year of a child’s life.
    Therapeutic gymnastics and massage. Manual therapy and correctly organized physical exercises help develop the muscles and strengthen the structure of the joint. Gymnastics and massage also help to correct the deformity of a relaxed joint.
    Physiotherapy. For the effective treatment used electrophoresis, heat application, magnetic-laser therapy, etc., allowing you to deliver nutrients directly into the joint area.
    Drug therapy. Treatment of an adult implies the use of drugs. In the joint area injections of chondroprotectors, drugs based on calcium, vitamins and other drugs, which can have a positive effect on cartilage and bone tissue.

    Upon expiration of the justification of conservative treatment the only solution is surgical intervention through which the affected joint is changed to an artificial implant. The justification of a particular method of treatment is determined individually by the attending physician.

    Joint dysplasia is a serious disease and self-medication can be fraught with consequences in the form of partial or complete disability of the affected limb. Timely diagnosis and treatment is the key to a full recovery.