Enchondroma thigh: symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, prevention
Causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of enchondroma
Diseases of joints and bones significantly reduce the possibility of movement, and in some cases lead to the development of tumor and inflammatory processes in cartilage tissue. The variety of this anomaly – enchondroma, the nature of which has not been fully elucidated.
Enchondromas called a benign tumor, which is formed from cartilaginous tissue and is localized within the bone or short (phalanges) or the long (thigh, shoulder), constituting the upper and lower limbs. There are also cases of detection of such tumors in the brain, ovaries, mammary glands. Usually enchondroma is a single lesion but can be multiple in nature, getting more structured.
The tumor structure is Mature hyaline cartilage, whose cells are arranged randomly and vary in shapes and sizes. It is covered with perichondrium, and inside it formed small foci of ossification. These tumors grow relatively slowly and belong to the benign group, but does not exclude the probability of malignancy.
Enchondroma begin to form in childhood, so the pathology diagnosed in patients under the age of 30, most often in the period from 11 to 16 years. To identify these tumors is quite difficult: they are not characterized by specific symptoms that a patient expresses any complaints that may serve as a pretext to conduct diagnostic activities.
The reasons for the development and formation of tumor
Risk factors, under the action of which the formation of bone tumors, still not described. It is known that the pathology is not associated with effects on the body chemical and radioactive substances, or with professional activity of the patient, although previously these reasons considered the main instigators.
It is known that enchondroma develops in utero and is associated with defect of bone tissue of the fetus. Another probable reason for the formation of tumors, rickets, as well as some inflammatory processes of the bone tissue occurring in the body.
Develops a tumor of the sections of the cartilage in those areas where under normal conditions the cartilage is missing. The tumor causes deformation of the affected area. The intercellular substance becomes less viscous, forming cysts.
The cartilaginous tissue that forms a tumor, is much less dense and solid, so not designed for high loads. This explains the fact that the bone where the tumor is, loses strength, and even a slight injury can cause a fracture.
Depending on the prevalence of pathologic process there are distinguished single enchondroma, which affects one bone (most often the femur), or multiple, which affects several structures, for example, hip, knee and foot.
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The characteristic features of enchondroma in the thigh are:
- the presence of a compacted painless education, which is detected by palpation;
- a limitation in the affected location, if the tumor reaches large size and is putting pressure on nearby nerves and blood vessels, joints;
- frequent fractures even with minor injuries;
- swelling over the affected area;
- the appearance of pain in the hip, which becomes more intense with pressure, and occurs mainly at night; pain may radiate to the knee area or other areas of the lower limb.
If the pain becomes more pronounced intensity, can be degeneration of cells in cancer. That is why, at the first atypical features should be referred to a specialist.
The complexity of diagnostics is in scant symptomatology, especially if the tumor size is small. Usually it is discovered accidentally during a survey associated with other diseases.
The main method of identifying chondroma – radiography. Obtained in the course of the event photographs reveal atypical enlightenment, localized in the structure of the femur, which in norm should not be. X-ray is not the only method that allows one to establish the diagnosis. Additional methods of examination in this case are:
- CT. With this imaging technique it is possible to obtain a complete picture regarding the structure of enchondroma.
- Biopsy. The procedure is performed in cases of suspected malignancy process. The fence material is carried out in several parts of the affected area, which improves the accuracy of the results.
- Differential diagnosis. In this case rule out the likelihood of such pathologies with similar symptoms: bone cyst, chondrosarcoma, giant cell tumor of bone.
Experts note that during the cartilaginous tumors are very difficult to distinguish a benign process from malignant.
Methods of treatment
Approach to the treatment of enchondroma of the femur depends on the scale accepts the pathological process. If the tumor is small, patient is prescribed conservative treatment and periodic passage of the x-ray examination to monitor growth.
If the tumor has formed in the long bones which include the femur and humerus, it is recommended surgical removal, since there is a potential risk of cell transformation into malignant. Enchondroma, resulting in short bones, are less likely to transition to the stage of the cancer.
Rapidly developing tumors of the long bones require extensive surgical intervention: during the operation, produce removal of pathological fluid contained in the cavities of bones, but without affecting the wall. If there is suspicion of a malignant process, performed segmental resection of the affected bones and sometimes amputation.
In the cavity introduced a special product based on calcium sulfate. It is a kind of matrix for the formation of new bone tissue gradually fills in remote areas.
If there are metastases after surgery was prescribed a course of chemo or radiation. In the rehabilitation period the patient is prescribed methods of physiotherapy, massage, physiotherapy.
The prognosis of this disease when properly carried out the treatment in most cases is favorable. After surgery remains a risk of relapse, but this applies only to those cases, if resection was not radical.
How can we prevent?
Specific recommendations that would avoid the formation of enchondroma, no, because of the lack of comprehensive information on the reasons for its occurrence.
To reduce the risk by maintaining a healthy lifestyle, exercising, nutrition. Pregnant women, to avoid the formation of defects and abnormalities of the fetus, should monitor the health status and abandon bad habits.
Enchondroma femur benign tumor, which can transform into cancer. To prevent this, you should consult a specialist at the first atypical symptoms.