Enthesopathy knee joint
Few people will pay attention to minor joint pain. Meanwhile, it could signal serious changes began to occur in our body. In medical practice is often found in such diseases as enthesopathy (or periarthritis).
Enthesopathy is an inflammation of the attachment points of ligaments, tendons or joint capsule to the bones. Long-term inflammation leads to degenerative processes in the tissues, which subsequently can lead to irreversible consequences. Most meets enthesopathy knee, hip and shoulder joints.
Causes of enthesopathy
The bones forming the joint are connected by ligaments. With the help of tendons bones are attached to muscles. This ligaments provides stability and the stability of the limb. The most common cause of injuries are enthesopathy. When you suffer mechanical damage and the soft tissue surrounding the joint. This leads to the development of inflammation. Enthesopathy classified depending on their location:
- inflammation of the knee joint;
- the hip joints;
- joints of the foot.
Enthesopathy is the common name of inflammation. It may include tendonitis (inflammation of tendons), bursitis (inflammation of the joint capsule), fasciitis, etc. Often, the inflammation can move to other adjacent tissue, then the disease becomes the combined character.
If the tissue is inflamed for a long time, then it starts the degenerative processes. In other words, the tissue of tendons and ligaments begin to simply collapse. Because this violates the General motor functions of the limbs, leading to disability and even disability of the person. Most often the disease is found in athletes and people whose professional activity is connected with constant static or dynamic loads (programmers, movers, painters).
You can summarize and highlight the causes of the disease.
Signs of inflammation of the periarticular tissue can be the same. Their differences are related to the cause of the injury or damage. For enthesopathy are the most characteristic symptoms like:
- pain, aggravated by movement;
- swelling and compaction at the site of inflammation;
- the difficulty of the movements.
- local temperature rise;
- pain with pressure or palpation.
In the early stages of pathology can itself does not show. Under certain movements (climbing stairs, squatting) can be slightly painful, usually people write this as fatigue. But over time, the inflammation becomes more and tissues begin irreversible processes.
Inflammation of the knee joint
Periarthritis of the knee joint most often occurs in the internal myselt thigh bone. In this place the bone is attached the tendon of the quadriceps femoris, which is also called «goose foot». Most often this disease affects women middle-aged and elderly. Inflammation develops as a result of the presence of any degenerative articular diseases (e.g., osteoarthritis). Inflammation of the knee joint may occur under the influence of various adverse factors. These include hypothermia of the feet, excessive physical exertion, injuries of the knee, poor circulation in legs due to vascular diseases (varicose veins, atherosclerosis). We should also mention factors such as inactive lifestyle, and metabolic disorders.
The knee joint is articular in a sealed bag. The cavity inside this bag is completely filled with a special fluid that lubricates and nourishes the joint during movement. Metabolic disturbances affect the composition of this fluid, in consequence of which it loses its properties. In addition, this fluid is generated only when motion of the knee joint. That’s why it’s necessary for physical activity for joint health.
The main symptom of enthesopathy is pain. When climbing stairs, extension of the knee joint or lifting the pain is worse. At rest, sharp pain gives way to aching and occurs again when you change poses. The knees may be swelling, redness of the skin. It is also noted local increase in temperature.
In severe cases, appears chills, fever, weakness and General symptoms of intoxication.
Pathology of the shoulder joint
Periarthritis of the shoulder joint are common in athletes who are engaged in swimming, tennis, throwing kernels and ROMs. A large number of forms of entezopatii due to the fact that the shoulder is a complex structure that combines many elements. The place where a tendon or ligament attaches to bone is called enthesis. Anthesis is a special anatomical formation, which consists of fibrous and fibro-cartilaginous tissue. It is in this place and the inflammation begins, which then goes to other tissues.
When shoulder injuries injured tendons «rotator cuff» of the shoulder. Inflammation can affect the joint capsule and the surrounding tissue. Most of all the inflamed tendon, which attaches the supraspinatus muscle. Tissue inflammation of the shoulder joint is the same as for other types of damage.
Lifting any object or swinging his hand to the side, the person feels pain. Pain of the shoulder joint becomes particularly pronounced at night. It becomes impossible to lie on the affected side. Over time, the pain occurs during movements without involving the shoulder joint. Becomes even painful movements such as shaking hands, lifting small light objects.
X-ray examination of the shoulder joint shows that the tendon can calciphilous. In bone tissue, which is attached to tendons, appear erosions, or growths. In the propagation of inflammation in the joint capsule developing bursitis. Symptoms of bursitis are night pain and inability of motion of the shoulder joint. Pain can radiate into the arm and to the shoulder blade.
Tissue inflammation of the shoulder joint can be both acute and chronic. During the chronic inflammation may be present over the years. Prolonged inflammation often occurs bilateral lesion of the shoulder joint. The second arm is affected because of the increased load, in connection with the first joint tenderness and the inability to distribute the actions between the two joints.
Enthesopathy can develop rapidly. With the rapid development of the function of the joint is quickly violated, is degeneration of the tendon-ligament apparatus.
Comprehensive care for enthesopathy
Enthesopathy requires treatment to prevent loss of function of a limb. As a rule, the treatment of this complex problem. It includes the following methods:
The medication involves the solution of several problems: removal of the inflammatory process and pain syndrome. Doctors prescribe pills. If the disease is in its acute phase, it shows the injection directly into a diseased joint. It is also recommended that application of preparations of local action (ointments, gels).
|Methods and tools||Impact|
|Eliminate inflammation.||For these purposes, use of diclofenac, nimesulide, meloxicam.|
|Chondroprotectors.||The drugs used to strengthen tendons and ligaments, give them flexibility.|
|Physiotherapy.||Have a beneficial effect on damaged tissue. Such procedures have analgesic properties, helps to remove edema, improve metabolism and blood circulation in the tissues and promotes regeneration. Prescribe such procedures as electrophoresis, laser therapy, magnetotherapy, paraffin therapy.|
|Therapeutic exercise and massage.||They are also necessary in the treatment of enthesopathy. Each zone has its own set of exercises that aims to restore motor function of the limb. Massages and physical exercises also improve blood circulation, promote rapid healing of the tissue.|
Modern surgery uses minimally invasive treatments that eliminate the pathology without damaging the surrounding healthy tissue. One such minimally invasive techniques is arthroscopy. For this operation, in the region of the joint is done in two cuts: one for introduction of the arthroscope (a tube with a camera) and another for the tools. So the joint capsule is not opened and the risk of infecting virtually nonexistent. In some cases, you may need a rupture of the joint capsule. This was done in order to restore the range of motion of the limb.
If conservative methods are ineffective or impractical, it may require surgical intervention.