Extensor and flexor contracture of the knee joint — treatment

Treatment and the development of contractures of the knee joint

In the treatment of fractures of the extremities is a temporary immobilization treatment: skeletal traction, plaster bandage fixation.

Immobilization is carried out in order to create conditions for consolidation of the bone parts. However, due to immobility complications arise.

Thus, very often, after fractures of the legs can be observed contracture of the knee.

It is the immobility of the feet in this period, mostly becomes the reason of occurrence of contractures.

Therefore, the recovery of patients with injuries of the legs, one of the main tasks is to fight against this phenomenon.

The reasons can occur contracture

Contracture may be caused by different reasons.

To initiate the breach may inflammation, trauma, changes in the articular bones due to arthritis or osteoarthritis, loss of elasticity, ligaments, shortening of the muscles. «Arthrogenic» contracture occurs due to dislocation inside the joint or near it, bone fracture, sprain or injury.

This disorders people suffer with diseases of the joints, but sometimes it can occur in healthy joints.

Contracture of the knee is not a disease is the result of an illness, injury or congenital abnormality.

Almost any serious injury entails the problem. On the affected tissue forms a scar. It is not elastic, and therefore prevents normal operation of the joint.

Lose different weight appears for any damage to the musculoskeletal system. Violations such as arthrosis and arthritis can also cause pathology.

It can occur due to damage to the nervous system. But often the nature of joint disease is mechanical.

For recovery after any injury, the damaged area needs to rest.

But the longer the affected area is at rest, the higher the risk of contractures and the harder it is to get rid of it.

Types of contractures

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The joint can be reduced:

  • when extension;
  • when bent;
  • when casting;
  • in the abduction;
  • at rotation.

Extensor and flexor types of pathology

Principal violations — flexion (violation of flexion) and extensor (violating extension); restrictions and other movements — rotation side.

Symptoms of the occurrence

The main manifestation is limitation of flexion or extension. Basically, there is a severe deformation of the joint.

You may notice the following signs:

  • swelling;
  • violation of the support;
  • pain in the joint;
  • shortening and uncomfortable feet.

In the rest of the manifestations depend on trigger the disease. With continued existence of contractures standard revealed signs of osteoarthritis of the knee.

To assess the severity of the contracture measurements of range of motion.

Treatment and the development of knee contracture in

The doctor’s aim is to eliminate the inflammation pain and restore mobility. The current medicine has achieved some success.

Prediction fully depends on the type and extent of injury, amount of time from the moment of occurrence, age of the patient and his condition, from the time which the start of treatment.

The sooner to start it – the higher the probability of positive dynamics, and in the end – an absolute cure.

To date, use of conservative and surgical treatment of disorders.

To develop joint using conservative treatment:

  • exercise;
  • therapeutic massage;
  • physiotherapy;
  • shock wave therapy;
  • electrophoresis;
  • chiropractic;
  • thermal procedures;
  • of medicinal treatment.

Of drugs used hormones and painkillers (novocaine, lidocaine). They are administered into the patient’s joint, the pain recedes, because of this muscle again becomes healthy tone, and the process slows significantly.

Performing a massage at restriction of mobility of the knee, it is necessary to actively influence weak muscles and gently – muscles-antagonists. Physical therapy if done carefully. First, perform a relaxed movement, then active.

Only after some period introduces an element of resistance. There are a number of very effective exercises:

  • alternately, bend your knees, pulling the abdomen;
  • raise bent leg, then straighten, lowering to the floor;
  • to perform a single leg movement similar to riding a bike, then to change the pace;
  • bend the legs and straighten up;
  • exercise, move your legs like on a Bicycle;
  • to raise a straight leg;
  • bend the leg at the knee, holding the weight;
  • then make circular rotation of the lower leg;
  • put a straight leg on the exercise ball and put pressure on it;
  • bend the legs while holding a ball between them;
  • put the limbs on the ball, roll it away from yourself and to yourself, trying to pull the feet;
  • by placing the ball under the knees, to push him heels;
  • pinch the ball between the femur and tibia and raise it;
  • to make a Bicycle movement with his foot, lying on its side;
  • lying on your side, raise the bent leg and straighten it, performing a Mach up;
  • in the same position raise the leg and hold the weight;
  • alternately, bend your knees lying on the stomach;
  • lying on your stomach, bend both legs;
  • in the same position to raise a straight leg;
  • and, again on the belly, bend the knee;
  • then rotation of the lower leg in a circle;
  • on the stomach — take a straight leg to the side.
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All exercises should be performed 10 times. You should train regularly – three times a week, preferably daily. But always under the supervision of a doctor.

Apply thermal baths, ranging from 36 degrees, over time, connect paraffin and mud treatment.

Conservative methods have the aim to restore normal movement and work of legs.

This disease is not aggravated by the complications neytralizuya pain, the joint becomes movable, the muscles are getting stronger, the joint gets nutrients.

Restores blood flow, stop stagnant processes, are adhesions. At the stage of recovery is used mechano-therapy combines the therapeutic, restorative exercises using special devices and equipment.


If the contracture is not treated with conservative methods, surgical intervention is carried out.

Through excised scars, restore the length of muscles, tendons, release them from scarring, transplant, osteotomy, etc.

If the tendon is significantly damaged, use canned or made of a special cloth material.

Can be performed different corrective bone surgery.

Consequences and complications

Without timely proper treatment contracture of the joint leads to its immobility. The disease at this stage is treated only surgically, so at the first sign you need to see a specialist.

A running defeat gives the patient move normally and causes deformation of limbs, not allowing the person to live a normal life and keeping his physical activity to a minimum.


Thus, under the condition of regular exercise, physical therapy for contracture of the knee joint will help the affected joint to recover and will eventually be conducive to its strengthening.

The forecast essentially depends on the underlying disorder, the severity of changes in joints and adjacent tissues. Fresh contracture with proper treatment and regular medical gymnastics, in General, respond well to conservative treatment.

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When running the process, the prognosis is less positive, because over time, changes in the joint worsen, the scar appears a rebirth of not only the affected, but also previously healthy tissue, appears secondary arthrosis.