Fluid in the knee joint: treatment, symptoms

Жидкость в коленном суставе: лечение, симптомы

The detailed structure of the knee joint of the person

The knee joint is the largest joint in the human body, and that this region accounts for the largest load during movement and also when carrying heavy loads. Despite the fact that the knee joint is constantly subjected to stress, its structure gives it sufficient stability and protection from the influence of any negative factors. However, even given the strength of this joint, it is possible to identify a number of factors that can cause damage.

One containment joint is synovial tissue, which produces synovial fluid that facilitates the sliding of elements of the joint relative to each other. Of course, part of the joint includes other important elements, including cartilage, tendons, menisci, etc., but most frequently when injury occurs it damage the synovial membrane, which is accompanied by severe pain and edema of varying intensity. The defeat of the synovial membrane and, as a consequence, the accumulation of fluid in the joint in medical practice is called «synovitis».

Why is the knee accumulates fluid

Synovitis, that is, the accumulation of fluid in the joint may be a consequence of many diseases and pathological processes. A separate factor contributing to the development of synovitis, can be considered injuries, as they are most often accompanied by the appearance of this pathology. There are several injuries that most often cause the accumulation of effusion.

  • Rupture of the ligaments.
  • Sprain.
  • Bone fractures.
  • Meniscus ruptures.
  • Rupture of the capsule.
  • In most cases, fluid accumulates in the knee when the injury has hemorrhagic in nature, that is, contains an admixture of blood due to rupture of small blood vessels surrounding the damaged tissues. In rare cases, the effusion may be serous in nature, i.e., include particles of pus that usually is a consequence of the infection of synovial fluid pathogens. In rare cases, tearing of tissue and the appearance of the effusion may cause thinning of tissue. Reasons for this phenomenon may be many, but the main is the lack of necessary minerals and vitamins in the body.

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    Жидкость в коленном суставе: лечение, симптомы

    Joint destruction in arthritis may cause the accumulation of synovial fluid in the knee

    To pathological accumulation of fluid also often lead of the disease autoimmune and degenerative nature that directly affect the ability of the tissues of the knee joint to regenerate and inevitably lead to dysfunction of the whole joint. To diseases that can cause the appearance of effusion in the knee may include:

    • rheumatoid arthritis;
    • hemophilia;
    • osteoarthritis;
    • systemic lupus erythematosus;
    • bursitis;
    • septic arthritis;
    • dermatomyositis;
    • gout.
    • Bechterew’s disease.

    There are cases of formation of effusion in the knee joint due to systemic allergic reactions. It should immediately be noted that the fluid in the elbow joint often accumulates for the same reasons as in the knee. To completely eliminate the formation of effusion is impossible in any joint of the human body, but if in some cases can accumulate a small amount of fluid (it is the body’s reaction to a stimulus and may eventually disappear by itself), in other cases to resolve the problem required long-term treatment and removal of the accumulated effusion by means of puncture. By the predisposing factors of occurrence of synovitis include older age, obesity, severe stress.

    Symptomatic manifestations of synovitis

    Жидкость в коленном суставе: лечение, симптомыIntra-articular fluid in the knee performs several very important functions, therefore its absence or insufficient production often cause the development of degenerative diseases. However, disruption of the synovial membrane and the appearance of significant quantities of liquid is also not a good sign, the man in this scenario feels all the symptoms of synovitis. In addition, in the future, can develop serious complications, because the pathological accumulation of effusion often becomes «home» for many pathogens (synovial fluid in the knees is the perfect breeding ground).

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    When complications in the knee, generally formed of a purulent abscess and fistula, which are extremely difficult to treat, and in some cases can cause problems with motor abilities of the joint. Regardless of the etiology of synovitis is always accompanied by the same symptoms. Some of the most common include the following manifestations:

  • The increase in knee joint in size.
  • Swelling in the region of the patella.
  • The feeling of tight elastic of education in the area of the patella on palpation of this area.
  • Difficulty with dorsiflexion of the foot.
  • Pain when moving the leg.
  • Increased local temperature.
  • In some cases, synovitis may be accompanied by reddening of the skin in the knee and popliteal region, but this symptom is not characteristic of all cases of disease.

    The development of a purulent abscess on the inside of the damaged joint is often accompanied by an increase in overall body temperature, which is the body’s response to inflammation.

    What to do if there is fluid in the joint

    Жидкость в коленном суставе: лечение, симптомыBefore how to treat this pathology, as the accumulation of fluid in the knee joint, doctors collect a medical history and a list of tests needed to identify the causes of the disease. The most common tests and studies that are assigned in determining the causes of the problem include:

    • ultrasound;
    • radiography;
    • common blood tests;
    • arthroscopy;
    • aspiration of the joint.

    Depending on the severity of the condition of the patient can be designated as medication and surgery.

    Drug treatment is acceptable in cases when the amount of fluid in the knee is small, there is an inflammatory process, purulent abscesses or other complications. The main medical treatment are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, and in addition, corticosteroid hormones. In addition to medication, patients prescribed rest and wearing tight bandages so as to remove the liquid by exerting pressure on this area. In complex cases, when there is large accumulation of the effusion or the occurrence of complications, surgical treatment is assigned, so as to remove the liquid without the intervention does not work. In the absence of purulent abscesses or hemorrhages, usually done artrotsentez or puncture that let you just remove the liquid. In case there are tears or complications is arthroscopy, where the surgeon makes a small hole through which the inside of the joint is entered, the camera and the tool to restore the integrity of tissues.

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    Many people see a swollen knee, immediately panic and begin to look for ways of treatment. Some turn to traditional medicine, not realizing that to solve requires the pumping of liquid. Folk remedies against the accumulation of fluid in the knee joint can be used only if the symptoms slightly.

    Treatment of folk remedies may be fat, ointment based on comfrey, rye decoction, oil of Laurel. With a significant amount of fluid in the joint treatment of folk remedies will not give a positive effect, therefore, should immediately contact the doctor.