Fracture of the condyles and other parts of the tibia: treatment and recovery time
Tibia fracture: species, treatment and rehabilitation
Approximately 10 % of all fractures accounted for the Shin bone. At the same person can be open or closed injury.
In the first case violated the integrity of the skin in the affected area. In the formation of a closed fracture of the glass shards will be inside, while the integrity of the epithelium is not damaged.
The Shin bone is called the long and large bone of the lower leg. It includes body and 2 articular ends. The proximal end is involved in the formation of the knee joint. The distal part of this bone forms the ankle joint.
The fracture of this part of the feet can sometimes be the result of the influence of large forces. While it can occur at various levels. Of all fractures musculoskeletal this injury is about 23 %.
Which causes injury
Podiatrist Dikul: «the Penny product is No. 1 to restore the normal blood supply to the joints. Back and joints will be like in 18 years, enough time in the day to smear… Read more
The main reason for the development of such injuries are considered high-energy injuries. These include the following:
- dorozhno-transport incident;
- falling from height;
- man-made disasters;
- injuries in the workplace;
- natural disaster.
That is why fracture of the tibia is often combined with other injuries – in particular, it may be a fracture of the other extremities or ribs, the defeat of the chest or abdominal trauma.
To cope with this violation, should be addressed to the traumatologist.
Types of injuries
There are a number of varieties of fractures of the tibia, each of which is characterized by certain features.
So, there are the following types of fractures:
- Stable. In this situation, the displacement of bone fragments expressed not too much. They are localized on the axis. During healing, the bone fragments are not displaced.
- Cross. In this case, the line of damage is perpendicular to the axis.
- With displacement. When such injury is broken axis of the bone, and disconnected bone fragments. In most cases, the fracture never heals, and therefore is the intervention for the connection of bone fragments.
- Scythe. In this situation, the line of damage is located at an angle to the axis. Thus in humans, there is progressive instability. It is usually combined with fracture of the fibula bones.
- Comminuted. Upon receipt of such injury, the bone is broken into 3 parts.
- Spiral. In this case, the bone is subjected to torsional forces. The line injury affects the bone in a spiral.
- Open. In this situation, fragments of bone outside of the skin. In this case also, there is severe damage to muscle, ligaments and tendons. Often develop dangerous complications. To recover from such damage takes a long time.
- Closed. The integrity of the epithelium is not disturbed, but may experience serious damage to internal soft tissues. Often when such injury develops edema, which causes poor circulation in the limbs and leads to death of muscle cells. In difficult cases it may be necessary to amputate the leg.
Special attention is given to fracture of the condyles of the tibia. This term refers to a lesion of the lateral areas of the upper part of the bone.
This injury falls into the category of intra-articular fractures that occur with direct blows or falling on the knee. In this case, there is often a displacement or impaction of fragments.
Manifestations of injury and complaints of victims
When tibia fracture usually experience the following symptoms:
- severe pain at the injury site;
- increase in pain when trying to stand on the leg, while in a calm state the discomfort is dull and aching in nature;
- swelling in the Shin – if damaged vessels in the affected area forms a hematoma;
- the tibia deformation, abnormal mobility of the legs below the affected area;
- numbness in legs, pallor of the skin – these symptoms indicate damage to nerve fibers and blood vessels;
- lesions of vessels and tissues – is observed in the case of open fracture.
First of all, give the victim painkillers and carried out the immobilization of the affected limb a special bus. If this is not possible, use improvised tools – for example, you can take for this purpose the two boards.
It’s important to watch the lower area of the tyre covers the ankle, while the upper should reach the upper thigh.
With an open fracture with skin is necessary to remove foreign objects and contamination. While the wound is recommended to be closed with a sterile bandage. In the case of severe bleeding of the thigh need to use a tourniquet. If a person is observed in traumatic shock, he shows anti-shock activity.
Diagnostics and assistance in a medical institution
To identify fracture the doctor should examine the external symptoms of trauma and to ascertain the circumstances of the injury.
Equally important is the strength and direction of impact. To get more information, the doctor performs an x-ray of the affected part of the limb. As a rule, it is made in two projections.
Scheme of therapy depends on the extent and nature of the injury. Treatment can be conservative or surgical. With a stable fracture without displacement, sufficient immobilization with a plaster bandage.
In other situations, the shown imposition of skeletal traction. The needle is passed through your heel bone, and the limb put on a splint. On average, the initial weight for an adult person has a weight of 4-7 kg – it affects body weight of the patient, the development of the muscle tissue, the nature of the fracture. If the need arises, the weight of the load increase or decrease.
Indications for surgical intervention is multisplintered fracture. In this case, you cannot restore the correct position of the bones with conservative methods. As a rule, the operation is performed a week after admission to the hospital. At this time the patient’s condition is normalized, reduced swelling, and the doctors have time to do a detailed survey.
Operative treatment of fractures is carried out using various metal structures. These include locking rods, plates, pins. The choice of a particular technique is affected by the nature and extent of the fracture.
The period of fracture healing in an average of 4 months. If a person observed an open fracture or severe injury, this period is extended to six months or even more.
Recovery and rehabilitation after injury
To fully recover after such an injury, you need to strictly follow medical advice. Rehabilitation includes the following components:
- The activity of the affected limbs need to recover as early as possible. In the period of wearing a cast muscle tissue atrophy, and therefore it is necessary to develop. Of course, heavy load and high intensity during this period is contraindicated, as the bone has not had time to get stronger. It is also important to note that the load should be increased gradually.
- Massage is also beneficial because it contributes to warming up the muscle tissue. In addition, it positively affects the blood circulation. Due to this, the bones get essential nutrients faster and stronger.
- Sometimes doctors prescribe the means of physiotherapy. With these techniques one can improve the nutrition of the affected tissues and stimulate regeneration processes.
- Therapeutic exercises should be performed under the supervision of a specialist. First, a passive development of the calf. After this the man begins to raise the legs and do squats.
- To stimulate the process of bone remodeling, it is very important eat a healthy diet and take vitamin supplements.
During recovery a person may experience quite severe pain. To relieve discomfort doctors prescribe painkillers. With the development of inflammation is shown using anti-inflammatory medicines.
Possible complications and prevention of injury
After a fracture may develop these complications:
- complete loss of motor activity after prolonged immobilization;
- the development of degenerative arthrosis;
- any infection with an open fracture;
- the defeat of the neurovascular bundle.
To prevent fracture of the tibia, it is recommended to avoid any damage. If a person is engaged in active sports, be sure to use personal protective equipment.
Fracture of the tibia is a serious injury that can lead to the development of dangerous complications. To avoid this, you need time to consult a doctor and strictly follow all recommendations of the specialist.
You should also pay special attention to the rehabilitation period that will allow you to completely restore locomotor activity.