Fracture of the talus of the foot: causes, symptoms, treatment, consequences
Treatment and rehabilitation after fracture of the talus of the foot
One of the most common types of injury to the bones of the lower extremities is an ankle fracture. Experts say that the most difficult and dangerous injury is a fracture of the talus bone of the foot.
This is because the talus plays an important role in the joints of the foot, and the fracture may cause development of many complications.
From the point of view of anatomy
Fracture of the talus is rarely diagnosed, but is considered quite a serious injury. Place of localization of the talus is the area between:
- the heel;
- and the fibula.
The sizes are small and the talus is not attached no muscle, but it is important for the normal operation of the whole foot. It is possible to allocate some features of the structure of bones:
- it accounts for the greatest burden of the whole body and with a sharp increase in voltage may disrupt its integrity;
- large part of the bone covers the cartilage and its fracture causes limitation of joint mobility and mobility problems of the foot;
- the talus is characterized by poor blood supply and this triggers the slow accretion of debris after injury, and can also lead to necrosis of the bone fragments.
From school biology course it is known that the talus has:
- the neck;
- the rear portions.
Experts say that often there is a loss of the neck and body, and relatively rarely diagnosed the damage process of the talus.
The fracture can occur for the following reasons:
- a fall from a high height or executing a jump with the support heel;
- the back flexion with simultaneous rotation of the foot;
- intense back bending of the foot.
Primarily a fracture of the talus is diagnosed as an unfortunate result, sports and road accidents.
Symptoms of injury
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Usually trauma is accompanied by characteristic symptoms:
- One of the main features of the fracture is the formation of strong swelling of soft tissues in the affected area. Most often the place of localization of the edema becomes the dorsum of the foot and there is a strong increase in its size.
- There are severe pain, and place of their occurrence becomes the ankle joint. Based on what part of the bone is damaged, the location of the pain may be both front and back of the foot. When you try to motion with his thumb increased pain.
- Injury of the talus causes problems with the functioning of the foot. At the slightest attempt to rely on the lower extremity there is severe pain in the ankle joint, making it impossible to move.
- Observed deformation due to swelling of tissues and often it is the result of a fracture of the talus with displacement.
In that case, if the patient is diagnosed with a marginal fracture of the talus, it causes minor pain, and violation of traffic slightly expressed.
Many patients are reluctant to seek help, and take a fracture for a normal injury. The lack of effective treatment leads to the fact that the fracture becomes chronic and this significantly lengthens the patient’s recovery.
To accurate diagnosis is specialist examination of the patient using the following methods:
- radiography allows to obtain a complete picture of the foot and to assess the severity of the injury;
- computed tomography gives information about the degree of displacement and helps to choose further tactics of treatment;
- MRI allows to determine avascular necrosis and osteochondral injury the dome of the foot.
Features of treatment
The choice of method of treatment for fracture of the talus is determined by the degree and affected area. The elimination of the pathology can be conducted using the following methods:
- conservative therapy;
In that case, if the victim has not observed the shift, from the toes to the upper third of the leg is getting better plaster bandage.
To wear such a bandage is required for several weeks, followed by its withdrawal and the patient can be subjected to foot a small load. If successful, the treatment after three months the patient is allowed to put a foot normal loads.
More complex fracture is an injury with displacement of fragments. For the treatment of such injuries is assigned to the elimination of displacement of fragments, i.e., undergoing reduction.
This procedure is accompanied by strong pain, so it is performed with anesthesia. Treatment of trauma in such a situation is as follows:
- is the stretching of the foot in length, then a sharp bending;
- upon reaching the desired result, you commit using a plaster boot, with its vault must be correctly modelled;
- after 7 weeks is a change of the plaster bandage, and runs placement of the foot at a right angle;
- usually in the treatment of this pathology is a rigid fixation of the foot necessary for several months.
In severe fracture, when it is closed way to put the fragments of the talus, resorted to holding open reduction. This treatment involves the fixation of fragments by using the spokes of Kirchner, at the same time made sure the x-ray for control of correctness of holding the spokes.
In that case, if the patient is diagnosed with complete bone destruction or necrosis, is assigned to arthrodesis.
In performing this procedure to bond the adjacent bones that form the joint. Subsequently diagnosed the absence of any operation of the joint and there is no movement.
When surgical intervention is necessarily overlaps with immobilizing bandage, the only exception to this is the imposition of a rod device that can capture limb.
Recovery after injury
After suffering a fracture of conducted rehabilitation activities and their main purpose is:
- restoration of mobility in the ankle joint;
- the return of normal functioning of the limb.
Rehabilitation is carried out using the following procedures:
- therapeutic massage;
- physiotherapy, which involves a gradual increase in load on the foot;
- the paraffin treatment.
The implementation of these procedures helps to speed up the reestablishment of the affected joint and to return the patient to normal life.
As a result of fracture of the talus may develop necrosis. This pathology is accompanied by severe swelling of the soft tissues and the emergence of a strong pain, which leads to a change in the quality of life of the patient.
Most often, the necrosis develops in if the fracture of the talus causes damage to blood vessels or there is penetration of infection in the resulting wound.
Another severe consequence after a fracture of the talus is the emergence of problems with the proper operation of the ankle joint.
In that case, if you were able to diagnose the complication early in its development, it increases the chances of full recovery of the patient.
Often different complications after the injury developing in the case when the victim does not apply in time for help, and takes a serious injury for a simple bruise.
In the case where could not prevent the damage of the talus, you should try to avoid unpleasant consequences. It is important throughout the rehabilitation period to keep the orders of a physician and take care of yourself.