From ultrasound joint hurts even more.
Ultrasound in medical practice widely used for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the musculoskeletal system. Ultrasound machines can measure bone density and elasticity, to track changes in the microstructure. These data are used for the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis.
Methods of ultrasonic diagnostics of bone health safer for the body than x-rays, efficient to specify diseases that have similar symptoms. For example, knee pain and limited mobility of the knee joint can be caused by many reasons. Ultrasound will reveal the damage to the cartilage or meniscus, ligaments and tendons of the knee joint, detects the x-ray method is not available for fractures, degenerative diseases, malignant neoplasms in the region of the knee joint. The efficiency of diagnosis increases when using sensors with high resolution that allow you to visualize the accumulation of fluid, consider the surface of the tendons and ligaments of the knee joint.
If illness or injury has already happened, the ultrasonic devices used for therapeutic purpose for the non-surgical treatment. Widespread use of ultrasound in the field of the treatment of common inflammatory and degenerative lesions of the spine and joints, particularly in osteoarthritis and its consequences (sciatica, intervertebral disc herniation).
Fluctuations of the ultrasonic range have a frequency above 20 kHz. In the middle of the twentieth century, researchers found that wounds heal faster if they are treated with ultrasound with a frequency just above the threshold of sensitivity of the human ear. In modern medical practice for physiotherapy devices are used for generating frequencies in the range of 0.8-3 MHz. Most serial therapeutic apparatus operates at a frequency of 880 kHz.
Mechanisms of ultrasound effect on bone tissue
The effect of ultrasound has a complex character:
- mechanical (micro-massage);
- chemical (ionization);
The combination of effects leads to the physiological responses at the level of cells and tissues.
Mechanical action involves the compression and stretching of the cells, their vibrations under the influence of ultrasonic waves. It is a kind of micro-massage of cells and intracellular structures. Acceleration of blood flow and lymph not only improves the nutrition of bone tissue, but also reduces puffiness.
The start-up of chemical reactions is due to the more intense motion of the molecules under the action of ultrasound. There are gaps of intermolecular bonds. To produce more ions and radicals. These highly active products have a chemical effect, reacting with the proteins of cell membranes. The cells become more open, they come more substances from the outside. Destabilization of membranes is one of the mechanisms that underlies phonophoresis — a method of simultaneous effect of ultrasound and drug. This method is effective for the rapid delivery of anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, analgesic drugs enzyme preparations (e.g., hydrocortisone, analgin, aminophylline, hyaluronidase). A medicinal substance is applied to the joint before the application of ultrasound.
Thermal effect due to the fact that the energy of the ultrasonic waves is absorbed by the biological environments, turning into warmth. Dense tissue and organs containing collagen (ligaments, tendons, bones), which can absorb more energy than a loose structure. Driven heating increases the flexibility and elasticity of collagen structures. Warming up combined with stretching exercises contribute to the fact that the amplitude of movement of the joints becomes more. Warming selectively acts on the synovial fluid of the joint, periosteum, joint bags and menisci, collagen-rich bone surface. This enables more accurate work, for example, on parts of the knee joint, the anatomical structures of high complexity. Ultrasound heats the joint more than the diathermy method using high frequency currents, and also gives a more adequate increase in the temperature of the joint without burning the skin.
Phase physiological response to ultrasonic impact
The reaction of the body for a session of ultrasonic therapy has a prolonged character, which lasts about three months. The physiological response consists of several phases:
- the removal of inflammation;
- antispastic effect;
Immediately after medical procedures physiological reaction continues with the release into the blood of biologically active substances that have anti-inflammatory effect. This is especially true for treatment of joints affected by arthritis or arthrosis when the inflammation is extremely painful symptom. Inflammation of the knee joint and areas of the spine osteochondrosis are common cause of medication, if you have a joint. The advantage of ultrasound therapy is that the body activates the synthesis of anti-inflammatory agents.
After phase anti-inflammatory effect followed by spasmolytic reaction that soothe the back pain in osteochondrosis, relieve movement restrictions of the knee joint and other symptoms of muscle spasms that accompany bone injuries.
In the final phase activated processes of recovery of the damaged joints. Regeneration is provided by the increased synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids. There is an active migration of phagocytes to the damaged joints; ultrasound releases their enzymes that break down the debris of damaged cells.
Accelerated proliferation (multiplication) of cells that synthesize collagen; these processes make up for bone loss.
The use of ultrasound for operations
In surgery ultrasound is used for cutting of bones and their connections.
Ultrasonic instruments allow the surgeon to perform precise manipulations with small blood loss. Such tools are used in the following cases:
- for resection of bone for tumors;
- osteotomy in children;
- plastic surgery;
- when fitting grafts.
With the help of ultrasonic welding (osteosynthesis), you can restore the small bones that attach torn tendons, make joints arthroplasty. Osteosynthesis, which firmly binds the fragments and does not violate the natural regenerative processes.
Contraindications for ultrasound therapy
Despite the complex influence of ultrasound on the body, treatment diseases of the musculoskeletal system by using inexpensive devices is represented as a tool available for use without special training. For example, popular resources, describing the process of physiotherapeutic treatment of dysfunctions of the knee, back pain with portable devices that generate low frequency ultrasound. The device is simply applied to the surface of the skin, so the procedure eliminates the risk of blood poisoning. Information about the mutagenic property of ultrasound contradictory, but the short duration and low intensity of exposure nullify these concerns. Doctors determined contraindications for the procedure. Their range includes many different ailments:
- diseases of the blood;
- a number of diseases of the heart and Central nervous system;
- endocrine disorders;
- acute inflammation and fever;
- active tuberculosis.
You should not use ultrasound in the field of heart and brain. Children ultrasound therapy you can assign 3 years. People under the age of 20 and older than 60 years, the duration of the procedures is reduced. Despite widespread use of ultrasonic methods in diagnostics of pregnant women, to apply ultrasound to pregnant women for therapeutic purposes is not recommended.
Thanks to painless procedures, the simplicity and efficiency of the devices, ultrasound has become a common means of helping the musculoskeletal system at home to treat sciatica, degenerative disc disease, bruises, ligament damage, fractures, arthritis, arthrosis.
However, quite an impressive list of contraindications dictates the need for a medical consultation and examination before using ultrasound therapy.