Hemarthrosis of the knee: description, causes, treatment

Гемартроз коленного сустава: описание, причины, лечение

Hemarthrosis is manifested by hemorrhages in the internal cavity of the joint, may be the result of traumatic impact or consequence of the disease with impaired blood clotting. Often occurs injury of the knee joint, the fluid pressure inside it increases because the incident hemorrhage. The complexity of the structure of the knee joint prevents rapid resorption of blood pooling. In such cases, medical intervention is required and conducting special treatment.


Causes and symptoms of the disease

Description of hemarthrosis is included in the Handbook on the international classification of diseases, which contains diagnostic information. In ICD 10 disease code is M25.0. Codes are used for ease of handling and storage information. Clinical and diagnostic terms used in the Russian version of the Handbook, ICD-10, comply with domestic practice.

Hemarthrosis of the knee or other joint can be triggered by different types of injuries.

  • The occurrence of bleeding is possible when the fracture or dislocation of bones with a joint in the joint.
  • Hemarthrosis may occur as a result of stretching or rupture of ligaments.
  • Damage to the capsule or meniscus can also cause the disease.
  • Injury of blood vessels at the injury of the soft tissues can cause bleeding and blood accumulation in the joint capsule.
  • Гемартроз коленного сустава: описание, причины, лечение

    Faster symptoms appears in children, so after injury or trauma, the child should immediately be seen by a specialist.

    Hemarthrosis resulting from trauma, characterized by the presence of a certain clinical picture.

  • Due to a sudden rupture of the vessels, blood starts to penetrate into the cavity of the injured joint, this leads to the rapid swelling.
  • Pain in the knee and reduced his mobility caused by the increase in the size of the capsule, which begins to push on surrounding tissues.
  • Knee after the onset of bleeding quickly swells up, its lateral sides appear swelling.
  • If the blood continues to flow, the swelling appears on the front of the joint, its contours are smoothed.
  • Rupture of a major vessel is manifested by blueness of the skin, the destruction of small and medium-sized vessels of the skin takes on a crimson hue, there is a hyperthermia of the cover.
  • In the joint there is weakness, pain during palpation increases. Post-traumatic hemarthrosis manifests rapidly, often symptoms develop in 1.5-2 hours.
  • Preventive measures are the exclusion of traumatic situations, the use of braces, early treatment of associated chronic diseases.


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    Diagnosis and treatment of

    Гемартроз коленного сустава: описание, причины, лечение

    X-rays of the injured knee

    Diagnosis of the disease is done by a specialist, who assigns the following examination types.

  • Is an MRI or ultrasound of the knee joint showing damage to the blood vessels in the injured region.
  • To exclude fractures appoint radiography.
  • Is puncturing the cavity of the bag of the knee joint with the aim of eliminating arthritis and infectious inflammation, and to identify signs of hemarthrosis (blood in the analysis).
  • Threat is a chronic form of the disease that occur in case of wrong or delayed treatment. Hemarthrosis treated by removal of fluid from the joint cavity. Then the cavity was washed and injected her drugs to eliminate bleeding, pain and inflammation. Primary hemarthrosis quite easily treatable. With the accumulation in the joint of blood in volume more than 30 ml of liquid aspiration and introduction of drugs with a syringe is performed simultaneously with puncturing.

    The treatment is carried out under local anesthesia, the procedure involves this procedure.

  • A syringe with a thin needle from the internal cavity of the knee joint is the removal of fluid and blood.
  • The cavity is washed with a medical solution and it introduces a drug.
  • On the joint imposed tight bandage. The aspiration procedure can be performed several times.
  • Гемартроз коленного сустава: описание, причины, лечение

    Evacuation of blood from the patella after trauma

    Hemarthrosis of the knee joint as a result of the puncture healed within 3 weeks. If repeated hemorrhages into the joints there is degenerative change, so the secondary hemarthrosis treatment lends itself much more difficult.

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    If the disease recurs, the operation is performed in another way.

  • To create a positive pressure joint is compressed by the bandage.
  • Treatment begins with aspiration the main volume of liquid.
  • Then introduce the washing medium, which is removed with another needle through the new puncture.
  • Through the first puncture is injected drug.
  • Completed treatment applied to the joint bandage for fixing it in a stationary state.
  • When using this method reduces the risk of recurrence of bleeding, so remove the hemarthrosis is possible in one procedure.

    With a slight bleeding of the fluid in the joint dissipates without a puncture. In this case, it is possible to treat minor damage folk remedies. You can take anti-inflammatory extracts (yarrow, nettle), use biodegradable wraps (clay, herbs of Arnica and wormwood) and pain ointment based on honey.

    After injury, the limbs provide rest, holding it in the raised position. In the joint area 2 of the day is applied cold, thus limiting the load on the injured leg.


    The danger of the disease at presence of hemophilia

    Hemarthrosis of the knee joint, which serves as hemophilia, may be a long time to manifest. Under the action of blood clots cartilage is destroyed, it is fibrous changes leading to the emergence of inflammatory processes. Gradually hemarthrosis disrupts the ligaments, which causes rapid decline of the functionality of the joint. In hemophilia joint problems can occur even with a minor injury.

    In patients with hemophilia a hemarthrosis may develop suddenly. To reduce blood loss the treatment of such patients should begin immediately.

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  • Bleeding is eliminated by the introduction of antihemophilic globulin.
  • Is plasma transfusion and other necessary components of blood.
  • After treatment, the symptoms gradually disappear, so the joints should be at maximum rest.
  • Гемартроз коленного сустава: описание, причины, лечение

    Hemophilic hemarthrosis treated only in a hospital. The risk of circulatory disorders injuries is the risk of changes in cartilage. Can quickly progress to osteoarthritis, the causes of which are linked to tissue scarring (adhesions) on the surface of the joint.

    In the absence of qualified treatment hemarthrosis of the knee joint may become chronic. If the constant presence of blood in the joint cavity inflammation develops, the probability of complications such as infectious arthritis, bursitis, purulent synovitis. In severe and chronic cases may require hip replacement, is a surgery. In the rehabilitation period, the patient also must be under medical supervision.

    Attentive to their health and compliance with all medical recommendations to avoid complications and quickly restore the full functioning of the joint.