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Causes, symptoms and treatment of different types of ankylosis

Ankylosis is complete immobility of the joints which develops due to the formation of cartilaginous, fibrous or bone splicing of articular ends of bones articulate.

The disease can be caused by inflammatory manifestations in the joints, arthrosis, arthritis, traumas of various etiology, acute or chronic infections, intra-articular fractures.

The affected joint first becomes logopedija, after a time, altogether loses its mobility.

By the nature of the symptoms of ankylosis may be bony, fibrous or cartilaginous, at length, either total or partial.

The reasons for the phenomenon may be a few

Experts identify several reasons for the development of the disease.

Ankylosis often cause inflammation of joint tissues (arthritis or arthrosis), open intra-articular fractures with purulent process, which subsequently lead to degeneration of cartilage and growth of bone or fibrous tissue.

Prolonged immobilization, complications with purulent inflammation after surgery can also lead to ankylosis and contracture.

The shortening of extra-articular and articular tissue limitation is called contracture.

Species diversity

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By the nature of manifestation are distinguished ankylosis:

  • bone (true);
  • fibrous (rusavia);
  • cartilage (usually congenital).

When fibrous splicing between the articular ends of the bones remains a small layer of connective tissue, which can

remain remnants of the synovial membrane or fibrous cover. In the joint there is still a small movement.

When the bone joint is completely immobilized, the ends of the bones are connected by bone tissue.

For the length of the splice are divided into:

  • full joint mobility are missing and not recoverable;
  • partial mobility of the joint partially lost, there remains the possibility of its increase.
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Location klassificeret ankylosis of:

  • extra-articular;
  • intra-articular and capsular;
  • as well as functionally advantageous and disadvantageous.

Functionally advantageous is considered such a provision in the joint, when due to the mobility of the neighbouring joints is achieved normal mobility of the limb.

That will point to the danger?

The main symptom of ankylosauria – immobility of a joint. The process develops gradually over a long period of time.

The patient complains:

  • pain in the joints;
  • stiffness – especially in the morning;
  • the temperature in the inflamed area increases;
  • swelling of the joint.

Gradually pain and other symptoms disappear, and the joint is deformed. If an abnormal condition has occurred when the leg was in a bent or straightened position, the patient retains motor function.

When ankylosis of the knee or hip in a flexed position – walking almost impossible.

The fibrous form of the disease harakterizuetsya pain during oscillation, swelling of palangov fingers, deformation of the brush.

Diagnostic methods

At the first sign of the disease should seek medical help from a surgeon or traumatologist. After the initial inspection, determine the range of motion of the affected joint of the patient is sent for examination, which include:

  • screening of the joint;
  • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging);
  • CT.

Therapeutic methods

A method for the treatment of ankylosis depends on the course of disease, results of the survey and the complexity of the disease. In any case, it is a holistic therapy, which includes conservative and surgical methods.

Conservative treatment

Traditional therapy aims to restore function in the affected joint, eliminate pain and improve muscle tone.

After inspection specialist assigns the following procedures:

  • therapeutic massage;
  • LFK with the mandatory exercises in rhythmic development of the hand or foot in plaster (a tight bandage);
  • manual therapy.

Drug treatment reduced to taking anti-inflammatory drugs, hormones, and chondroprotectors.

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Physiotherapy is prescribed for the treatment of pain, inflammatory processes, improvement and restoration of joint mobility.

This moretouch, amplipulsetherapy (SMT) and electrophoresis.

For the treatment of fibrous ankylosis in the medical practice, there are specially designed rocking motion with taking painkillers.

Surgical treatment

In severe cases or when fibrous splicing recommended surgery, which involves the separation of articular ends of bones and the formation of new surfaces.

Between the new joint tissues are placed a special plastic strip. This operation is called arthroplasty.

Osteotomy helps to straighten the limb in an awkward position, and in particularly complex cases, shows a complete replacement of the joint – endoprosthesis.

The popular treatment

«Granny» means, of course, not fully cure stiffness in the joints, but in combination with traditional methods will help to relieve inflammation and reduce pain.

To popular methods include:

  • for inflamed joints apply a poultice of raw potatoes, clay or crushed Bay leaf, and camphor oil;
  • with joint pain are recommended a warm herbal bath;
  • bee venom helps with inflammation, relieves pain and restores movement in the joints.

Before using folk remedies should consult with your doctor.

The threat of disability

If the disease occurred in childhood, the affected limb ceases to develop normally and subsequently becomes smaller – this is evident even visually.

Ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) leads to incorrect jaw development, impaired growth of teeth and their curvature.

Advanced stage joint disease deforms the skeleton of the face and further breathing problems.

Atrophy of the masticatory muscles leads to the inability to properly chew food and in the future, the complete cessation of the act of chewing.

The development of disease in the joint is always present the risk of similar processes in the neighboring areas.

So, as a result of the immobilization of one joint, e.g. leg, the patient creates for it the sparing mode and ceases to use, as a consequence there is ankylosis.

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Preventive measures

To avoid pathology development you need to carefully treat the affected joint and, as early as possible, to begin a comprehensive treatment.

If you have any inflammatory diseases of necessarily shown a preventive examination. Avoid too heavy loads on the joints, and also fractures, contusions and various mechanical damage.

To prevent the occurrence of osteoarthritis in the adjacent joints when the ankylosis patient are recommended special exercises, physiotherapy, therapeutic massage.

To prevent unfavorable functional splice joint tissues necessary to carry out the correct immobilization of the injured extremity.


In the early stages of the disease specialists provide an encouraging Outlook for recovery of the joint.

In advanced cases, for example, bone ankylosis, which lead to a resistant strain, the patient may be recommended only the prosthetic joint.

Any disease is easier to prevent than to cure. At the first sign of sickness you need to seek medical help and get tested to identify the inflammatory formations in the joints.

With the help of various treatment methods can remove the pain, puffiness, and restore joint function.

Late-term recommended surgery.

The operation is quite complex and gives a positive result only if the serial orthopedic treatment, but in these conditions, normal movement is almost impossible to achieve.