Hip dislocation: types, symptoms, treatment

The hip joint has a structure that allows it to move freely. When there is displacement of the head joint from the acetabulum, there is a dislocation. Hip dislocation — trauma, which is 5% of the total number of dislocations. The reason for the rare occurrence of this phenomenon is that this kind of damage occur solely under the influence of big power and impact. To resolve the corruption often used is gypsum.

Classification and causes of sprains

Вывих тазобедренного сустава: виды, симптомы, лечениеToday experts identify the following types of dislocations:

  • Front the damage type which occurs upon the fall of man from a height, when the foot is taken aside. The head of the thigh bone is displaced downwards, tearing the capsule of the joint. Anterior dislocations are divided into nadannya and anterior. Treatment used gypsum.
  • Rear type of injury that is most common. Such dislocations occur when the hip rotation inside. There are the following subtypes of back sprain:
    • lowback;
    • caudineural;
    • Central;
    • innate, the development of which happens because of improper position of baby in the womb; when late begun treatment of this type of injury of the hip joint can develop lameness and «duck walk».

    Dislocation of the hip joint can occur in cases of falling from a great height or when exposed to strong impact (for example, in the case of an accident). The main symptoms of dislocation is a strong pain and immobilization of the affected person. Often, these dislocations in the elderly. In a situation of getting a person of dislocation to eliminate the symptoms, usually quite quickly and correctly to put a cast on.

    Hip dislocation can be a complication after an operation for establishment of the endoprosthesis of the hip joint. Plaster to some extent may be used in such cases.

    Congenital dislocation has the following reasons for its occurrence:

  • Genetic background (about 30% of cases).
  • Breech baby before birth or natural birth with serious complications.
  • The lack of vitamins and minerals in the mother’s body during pregnancy, which affects the formation of bones and tissues of the fetus.
  • The presence of pathogenic infections in the mother during childbearing.
  • Environmental living situation.

  • Congenital deformation: characteristics and features

    Вывих тазобедренного сустава: виды, симптомы, лечениеTo date, congenital dislocations are classified into the following types:

  • Maternity deformation (e.g., cerebral palsy, fractures, sprains, etc.) occur often in the intervention of an obstetrician in the birth process.
  • Acquired deformities caused by different pathologies of the musculoskeletal system (infections, tumors, injuries, etc.).
  • According to the degree of severity of congenital dislocation in children are divided into the following types:

  • Previsich, which are characterized by defective development of the hip joint. The symptoms of displacement of the head of the thigh bone in such situations do not occur.
  • Subluxation of the hip, which partially shifts the femoral head.
  • Dislocation, which manifests absolute offset of the femoral head.
  • Today, the percentage of congenital deformities in newborns is very high (18 cases per 10 thousand children). One technique to overcome anatomical deformation in the hip joint is to «educate» the turnout.

    The symptoms of dislocation of the hip joint depends on the place and extent of trauma to surrounding tissue. Often patients complain of feeling a sharp pain in the pelvis. Sometimes the movement is absolutely impossible. For all dislocations of the hip are characteristic deformation and in varying degrees expressed as reduction of the injured extremity. Motor function is limited and is accompanied by serious pains. Chronic dislocations have less severe symptoms. Pain become less bright. The tilt of the pelvis and lumbar curvature compensates for the deformation and shortening of the limb.
    The surgeon can easily diagnose the dislocation by defining its symptoms.

    In children with cerebral palsy frequent companion is the pathology of the development of the hip region. Experts believe its the main complication of an orthopedic nature in the occurrence of cerebral palsy.

    Вывих тазобедренного сустава: виды, симптомы, лечение

    The anatomical structure of the joint

    Many believe that the main cause of the high degree of hip instability in cerebral palsy — pronounced imbalance of the muscles of the pelvis, the turnout is minimal. The main role here is played by the inability to move without assistance or very slow uptake of these skills by children due to improper postures and limb destructions.

    Studies have shown that most of the dislocations and subluxations occur in children with cerebral palsy, who can not stand or move around. This phenomenon is observed in cases when the turnout in the child is minimal.

    How to treat these injuries in adults

    Medical treatment for adults is carried out after accurate diagnosis using MRI or radiography. Procedures are performed in the hospital under controlled conditions from the staff of the medical institution with the use of anesthesia.

    The stages of treatment of the patient with dislocation of:

    • reduction;
    • fixing, for which use gypsum;
    • rehabilitation and restoration measures after receiving a dislocation.

    Today for reposition of dislocation, apply the following effective methods:

    • Kocher-Kaefer;
    • Janelidze-Knee.

    With insufficient anesthesia the muscles are not fully relaxed. The reduction can be quite traumatic and painful. In carrying out this procedure, use gypsum.

    Independently reduce a dislocation is impossible, because such actions can cause worsening injuries and soft tissue injuries. The procedure for reduction must be made exclusively competent in this field specialist.

    After reduction is immobilization period, at which time the patient a plaster on all the advantageous joints legs using the methods of skeletal traction.

    During the rehabilitation period the patient used the following physiotherapy treatments:

    • UHF;
    • magnetic therapy;
    • therapeutic massage;
    • Exercise;
    • the influence of heat.

    After casting, the patient is recommended some time to use crutches for movement. Under the Central sprains, the patient often resort to surgical intervention. The gypsum in this case will not bring any result.

    Treatment of pathologies in children

    Вывих тазобедренного сустава: виды, симптомы, лечениеTherapeutic manipulation when detected dysplasia of the joints of the pelvis in newborns should start as early as possible to avoid subluxation and hip dislocation. Their main task is to strengthen the blood circulation in the pelvic region and keep the legs bent and allotted to the sides to ensure proper development of all parts of the joint. To this end, the orthopedic surgeons use special devices that fix the joints in the correct position (angle of the tire, pillow frejka, stirrups Pavlik). Such devices effectively reinforce the joints in frog pose, contribute to the proper development of the joints, dramatically without restricting movement. After the birth of a child is encouraged to use a wide availability.

    In addition to cultivation of feet in children treatments include therapeutic massages and muscle therapy, herbal baths. Therapy is about 6-8 months, and by 1 year the child is allowed to load on a limb and learning to walk. Before doing this be sure to conduct x-rays of the joints. It should be understood that in case of late detection of pathology during treatment and recovery becomes longer, the turnout to develop is becoming increasingly difficult.

    More difficult to treat dislocations of the hip joints in children with cerebral palsy in connection with the violation ratios in the joint, which leads to serious complications. Therefore, for the correction of the joints of patients with cerebral palsy using the surgical intervention.

    Daily physical therapy sessions and massages give a positive result for the normal development of the child as greatly reduced contracture of the muscles and improves the emotional background. Exercise in such situations — a necessary condition for a quick recovery.

    The development of flexibility in the fight against sprains

    Вывих тазобедренного сустава: виды, симптомы, лечениеIt is especially important to develop flexibility of the joints. Turnout is the ability to rotate his hips, legs, feet in position outward (anatomical ability to take «a frog»).

    Depending on the specific structure of the hip joint turnout can be congenital or acquired due to long-term employment.

    To improve turnout, use of exercises of the following nature:

  • Sit on the floor, bending and spreading his knees apart, feet as close as possible to bring the body and connect.
  • Lying on his stomach, take the hips, bending your knees. The soles of the feet should touch each other. As close as you can to pull your feet to the body, the back should be arched back.
  • If the dislocation is diagnosed by experts later need a long-term conservative treatment of the sick child, because to develop turnout in this case is quite difficult. And after 2 years may require the use of methods of operative intervention. The plaster in this case is not used, and it is recommended to develop the turnout of the child. Conservative therapy includes the procedure for reposition of the hip and fixation of the limbs in a divorced situation.

    Surgical treatment of children is strictly individual. When the femoral head is greatly shifted, the joint capsule is stretched, the reduction becomes impossible, and conservative treatment does not bring any result. It is recommended necessary to do surgery in 2-3 years the age of the child when it is optimal for the normal development of the joints of the hips, and the risk of complications and disability is minimal. This creates favorable conditions to study, to develop a good turnout at the child.

    All operations on reconstruction of the hip joint in adults can only relieve the human condition, but not to get rid of the problem. To do this, the following procedures apply:

    • osteotomy;
    • osteoplastic surgery;
    • the endoprosthesis.

    Surgery is not recommended when there is a high dislocation of the hip and formed newartriot. Welcome to the gypsum treatment.

    If you experience minor suspected dislocation of the hip joint must immediately seek help from a specialist. In this pathology the effectiveness of therapy is directly proportional depends on how timely it is developed. The timeliness depends on the ability to «educate» the turnout of the child.

    To the treatment and rehabilitation of hip dislocation, it is recommended to take quite seriously, as often such damage may be accompanied by occurrence of dangerous complications.

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