How to treat a sprain of the knee: causes and symptoms of trauma

Sprain of the knee joint: first aid and treatment

A hallmark of the superiority of man from other vertebrates earthly creatures is the ability to keep the body upright and the ability to walk…on his feet.

That’s how the human skeleton, to perform vital actions necessary limbs — legs and hands.

In turn, the limbs consist of joints, muscles and ligaments.

This paper will address the problems associated with the knee ligaments. So, the knee is the body that serves as a support and enabling the movement of a person. On the share of the knees have a huge load when performing certain actions and movements.

The more used and «operated» a specific organ, the higher the risk of injury. Most at risk are people involved in sports or people with certain physical exercises.

Anatomical subtext

The knee consists of the patellar tendon, cruciate pair, and literal ligaments, with both lateral surfaces of the legs. It should be noted that all these parts are prone to stretching and tearing.

Sudden movements, lifts weight, getting bumps and sprains can be a cause of the stretching of the ligaments of the knee.

It is characterized by microscopic tears of the tendon fibers in a state of maximum tension of the muscle fibers of the knee part. In this case, the ligaments have lost the property of stretching, which contributes to the pain.

First you need to form a figurative representation of the structure of the knee joint. The depreciation function of the knee joint perform lateral and medial meniscus, which lies inside the joint.

Also, given the fact that the knee takes on various loads, it is provided by the presence of strengthening a large number of ligaments, which in turn are located inside and outside of the joint.

The function of the knee ligaments

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The knee joint is formed of the outer ligaments:

  • fibular collateral ligament;
  • tibial collateral ligament;
  • oblique popliteal ligament
  • popliteal ligament arcuate shape;
  • the ligament of the patella;
  • the ligaments that support the patella.

And internal:

  • anterior cruciate ligament;
  • posterior cruciate ligament.

Ligament perform the following functions:

  1. The fibular collateral ligament and tibial collateral ligament. Support Misaki the femur and tibia together. These ligaments prevent lateral bending of the knee joint.
  2. The ligament of the patella. Provides a bunch of cups hanging knee, which improves the sliding of the condyles of the bone, being expelled by the cartilage at the inner surface.
  3. The inner and outer patellar tendon support. Ligaments perform the function of hanging the cups of the knee.
  4. Anterior cruciate ligament serves to limit displacement of the thigh bone forward in relation to the tibia.
  5. Posterior cruciate ligament is a stabilizing element of the knee joint to prevent displacement of the hips back against the Shin.

Causes and mechanism of injury

Despite the complex and perfect structure of the knee joint as a whole, still, it protects it from external factors that lead to various kind of injuries and illnesses.

In most cases, the cause serve as a regular sports or household effects. The whole point is that a person performs actions not conforming to the normal functioning of the ligaments of the knee joint.

For example, sharp jerks among athletes and tennis players, who no doubt lead to momentary stress on the joint.

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The mechanism of occurrence of injury and stretching of the knee joint, is a specific feature.

She agreed with the force as a fall, collision, common effects on knee joints with different weight loads, wrong decisions of the joint itself.

That would indicate a sprain?

On the basis of the causes and mechanism of injuries of the knee joint, the final stage of the process is a manifestation of characteristic signs and symptoms.

The majority, in a situation of injury, at first you can not decide, there was a break or sprain.

So, in the case of sprains of the knee are characteristic of a strong, but vague pain.

About uncertainty, at break to determine the exact source of pain is difficult.

Swelling. If you try to move your knee, it is accompanied by a manifestation of the pain, in some cases, the appearance of the crackle and clicks. When you receive serious injuries recorded hemorrhage.

In the case of stretching of the ligaments of the knee joint constant pain occurs 2-3 hours after the injury. If the pain occurs during the day, it means muscle damage.

Also, while more serious sprains signs are accompanied by stiffness and lack of ability of independent movement of the joint.

When making attempts to stand on the leg, it may be exposed legs in the knee joint. While there is a permanent and involuntary muscle tension.

Symptoms for sprains are the consequence of irritation of the nerve endings, which are the building blocks of ligaments, swelling and origin of the hemorrhage in the soft tissue of the joint.

On the first point, the pain increases only when trying to make movements. In some cases, making movements can be realized for the first time.

After a certain time the symptoms increased swelling, pain and limitation of movement.

The degree of stretching

For personal injury and injury to the knee ligaments has its own characteristic degree.

They mainly appear in 3 degrees:

  1. I-degree light stretching. In this case, observed damage to small areas of the ligament. While there is little tangible pain, not preventing the movement of a person. The integrity of the bond can be broken not much, only the occurrence of micro gaps.
  2. II degree – moderate sprain with a partial tear, given deeper touching the cords. The second degree is a violation of the ligament, which entails the process of inflammation. Felt most severe pain, there is swelling and hematoma.
  3. III degree – heavy tension, followed by a complete rupture, with the presence of deep disorders of the joint. In this case, there is an acute and severe pain. There is a bruise and swelling. The consequence of the third degree may be chronic give to various and regular damage.

How to distinguish from rupture

To distinguish a sprain of the knee from their break not only the presence and level of pain and ability to perform movements of the injured joint.

In the presence of a stretching characteristic limitation of joint mobility.

In case of rupture observed increase in the amplitude of the movement joint. When you stretch the joint, movement of the joint is very limited.

Diagnostic approach

Playback diagnostics, including the intellectual and technical capacity of modern medicine is not difficult.

If the symptoms are located in the part of injury, obvious edema, the volume increased, and the color of skin had a different color, the same patient expresses the opinion that there is the same pain when driving and idle, this indicates the presence of stretching.

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There are technical possibilities:

  • MRI;
  • computed tomography;
  • Ultrasound;
  • x-rays;
  • arthroscopy.

Thus we can draw the appropriate pictures in the appropriate projections. Through this method of diagnosis is possible to see the whole structure of the knee joint considering of ligaments, tendons and cartilage.

By applying the method arthroscopy is the internal examination of the joint. This method is known as the small surgical method. A method is used in the treatment.

First aid

The important point in a sprain of the knee is first aid.

First, we need to ensure immobilization of the affected with total elimination of unwanted movements. This will prevent further aggravation of the injury.

Certainly need to wrap your knee with cold material or applying a compress. If you experience extreme and increasing pain, need pain medication and, of course, immediately call the medics.

Principles of treatment

Of course, it is advisable to get into these negative situations and all sorts of ways to avoid accidental injuries. But it needs to be more cautious, careful and vigilant!

But since there is a disease it should be treated.

In the treatment period it is advisable to stay in bed without doing active movements. Eliminated the load on the bad knee.

If the sprain is accompanied by injury of the joint and in the presence of hemarthrosis treatment should be carried out in a stationary mode.

It is recommended for bruises without blood congestions application vintovoi tight bandage.

In the case of fluid in the joint need to commit a plaster bandage for the ankle part of the hip and thigh. This bandage should be worn until the disappearance of the liquid.

The purpose of the application of these procedures is to strengthen the muscles and complete recovery of the normal functioning of the joint.

Additionally are injected with novocaine:

  • in the knee cavity administered novocaine solution;
  • applied splints made from plaster, which should fix for up to 14 days.

This technique is increasingly used by athletes.

Additional methods

Treatment with ice has a positive effect narrowing of the blood vessels, which helps to reduce inflammation.

It is enough to pieces of ice contained in the bag, wrap in a wet towel and keep on the knee to 20 minutes.

The procedure can be applied 3-4 times a day.

The use of bandage plastikowego bandage. This ensures sufficient protection of the knee joint from unwanted motion.

You must keep the knee elevated. In the posture of lying down to keep the foot above chest level, which helps to reduce swelling.

The use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and help to eliminate pain and swelling. The application of thermal procedures also helps to reduce pain.

You can use the with the means at hand, such as plastic bottles filled with hot water, heating pads, hot bath.

Treatments are recommended to apply 3-4 times a day.

People recommend

In addition to the use of medical procedures for sprains of the knee joint possible treatment of folk remedies.

It should be noted that full recovery in this case is almost impossible.

The most effective use of traditional recipes in combination with traditional means.

Recommended recipes ointments for treatment of sprains:

  1. You need to mix the clay with vinegar from apples and attach the resulting ointment on the injured part of the knee, will effect warming, pain relief and relieve inflammation.
  2. The paste of eucalyptus leaves with a rubbed garlic also has a positive effect. For preparing ointments need to grind the eucalyptus leaves and mix with the frayed garlic, boil for 5 minutes and apply every day.
  3. Applying grated, raw potatoes it speeds up the recovery process. Mix mashed potatoes with chives or cabbage enhances the properties of the ointment.
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Rehabilitation: a long, but possible

The recovery process after trauma can take a long time.

The rehabilitation period may be 2-3 months. It all depends on the level of the injury. It is necessary to start treatment at the primary expression of the disease.

Methods of self-medication are eliminated entirely, so you need to make a mandatory visit to the doctor.

Taking into account the existence of latent periods of the disease, there is a possibility of increase of level of pathology. It also contributes to the increase of treatment time and recovery process of the knee joint. Most importantly, the timely initiation of treatment.

When you lightly stretch the affected it is necessary to provide rest for several days.

If the injury is more severe then you need to pay special attention to the rehabilitation process. In this case, recovery may last up to a month.

In mild injury, it is sufficient to train on the bike. Thus there is repeated bending and straightening of the knee joint. Workout need to be introduced carefully and gradually increase the load.

For a start, the duration of training should not exceed 20 minutes a day.

Extension and flexion of the legs can also be done sitting on the bench. To do this, simply lift the leg and hold in the air for 3 seconds.

You can apply the «imaginary» ride on the bike. To do this, lie on your back, lift your legs and imitate riding.

The rehabilitation objectives apply techniques of therapeutic massage, physiotherapy.

Apply manual treatment, which improves blood flow and restoring muscular and tendinous fibers of the knee joint.

In any case, you need the assistance of a qualified professional, as gradually the load level and types of training routines will change.

The trauma

The ability to run, jump, Crouch, turn around and just walk, provides the knee joint. He also holds the bones of the femur and tibia.

With incomplete recovery after an injury people will be limited in the possibilities.

Preventive measures

To prevent injuries to the ligaments of the knee joint is quite simple.

During the walk you need to maintain caution and glances at his feet, to look at what and how you step.

Given the increased risk in winter, you need to get frozen and slippery parts of the roads.

Athletes need to perform warm-up and exercises.

Also don’t forget about regular exercise, which strengthen the ligaments.