Hypermobility of joints (hypermobile syndrome): treatment and causes
If joint hypermobility in children
Joint hypermobility is a condition characterized by excess of amplitude of motion in the joint compared to its physiological norm.
The degree of mobility of the joints is determined by the elongation and elasticity of such structures as a capsule, tendons, and ligaments.
It is therefore considered that the basis of the development of the syndrome of joint hypermobility lies transmitted hereditary feature of the structure of collagen, which is the main connective tissue protein.
In this regard, and there is an increased extensibility of the fibers.
Children fabrics more stretchy and elastic, so hypermobile syndrome in children is not considered a pathological condition, of course, if the excessive hyperextension of the joints have no complaints and no damage to the joints.
Since the mobility of the joint due to the surrounding tissue it has been suggested that the excessive mobility of the joints occurs wear and tear of the articular surfaces with the surrounding tissue, which leads to the appearance of symptoms.
Clinical observations have shown that the excessive use of hypermobile joints symptoms increase.
Despite the fact that the syndrome loose is a relatively benign condition, patients with this disease, often reveal some potentially significant problems.
During the research, the players and ballet dancers with hypermobile joints were more likely to be torn ligaments, dislocation of joints and other trauma disorders.
People with this syndrome often there are fractures of the spinal column — the different curvature: scoliosis, kyphosis, lordosis. The terrible consequence of the hypermobility of the spine is a herniated disc.
Joint hypermobility in children and adults expressed a sense of discomfort, occur after physical activity, especially during the periods characterized by rapid growth.
They are localized most often in the lower extremities, but can appear and at the top.
Joint pains usually occur in the knee joints, but can also be felt in the ankle. People intensely involved in sports, you may receive the effusion in the joints and soft tissue swelling.
At histological research of signs of inflammation are usually absent, the overall picture is similar to the injury. In the synovial fluid contains a small number of cells and protein.
Usually the defeat of the joint reaches the extent at which people would abandon their favorite sport.
The types of manifestations
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There are two types of clinical manifestations: articular and extra-articular.
For patients with hypermobility of the joints characterized by increased sensitivity to exercise, and constant occurrence of sprains, dislocations and other injuries. In other words, is the dysfunction of connective tissue.
To articular manifestations include articular and periarticular pathology that occur in the acute form.
Usually the accession of inflammation of the joint capsule and synovial fluid. Later there is pain, often localized in the knee joint, the ankle and small joints of the hand.
Periarticular lesion occurs due to excessive load or a small injury. Occur recurrent dislocations and subluxations of the joints, sprains of the ankle joint.
To articular manifestations also includes: secondary osteoarthritis and pain in the back. Sometimes people hypermobility occurs with valgus deformity of the lower extremities or «hammer-like» deformity of the fingers.
To extra-articular manifestations of the syndrome include excessive elongation of the skin, its fragility and vulnerability, early appearance of varicose veins, umbilical, inguinal and incisional hernia, mitral heart prolapse any internal organs.
Due to excessive stretchability of the skin in people with this disorder have stretch marks.
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Syndrome joint hypermobility in children
Children with hypermobile syndrome, can present various complaints from the musculoskeletal system.
The most common symptom is joint pain that occurs after physical activity associated with repeated use of the affected joint. The pain may occur in one or several joints, may be symmetrical and generalized.
Most often, the pain occurs in the knee joint, but any joint, including the joints of the spine can be affected.
Usually the pain goes away by itself, but can occur during any physical activity. Much less likely to occur in children muscle aches, cramps and other extra-articular pain in the limbs.
The relationship of pathology with the development of malformations of the cardiovascular system is controversial. However, studies have shown that mitral valve disease of the heart are more common in children suffering from this syndrome.
This is due to the connective tissue, because as has been said, the disease are changes in the protein structure of collagen.
With the growth of the child the connective tissue Matures, resulting in a decrease in the manifestations of the syndrome.
Treatment of pathology
The choice of the type of treatment, if diagnosed with joint hypermobility of joints is based on the cause of the syndrome, its symptoms and intensity of pain.
It is important that the patient is aware that the disability the disease does not, and with proper treatment his condition rapidly improved.
To achieve this condition, the patient must eliminate exercises that cause pain and discomfort in the joints.
When intense pain in some joints use a special elastic retainers, called orthoses. These include knee pads, elbow pads.
You can apply medication for severe pain. Usually for pain relief, use of analgesics (deksalgin, Ketanov, analginum). Many patients use the ointment has a warming effect, and ointments containing non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents.
Also useful are such physiotherapy as mud, laser therapy, paraffin treatment, and others.
The main treatment is physiotherapy, namely, gymnastic exercises, because the strength and stability of the joint is ensured not only by ligaments but also by muscles that surround it.
Therefore, selected gymnastic exercises, allowing you not just to get to bend and straighten the joints, exercises that load the muscles. For this purpose, static and strength exercises, performed slowly and without the use of weights.
Absolutely contraindicated exercises for stretching.