Inflammation of the tendons of the knee: diagnosis and treatment
A variety of articular pathology form a large group of diseases, among them special place is occupied by inflammatory processes of the tendons of the knee joint. Such diseases significantly reduce quality of life, so you should consider them in detail and comprehensively in order to detect the onset of disease.
The causes of disease
Disease of the tendons of the knee joint and surrounding tissue which is inflammatory in nature, is called tendinitis. The disease affects the ligament that helps to raise the leg and straighten the knee. It is located on the lower side of the patella and is a continuation of the ligament of the quadriceps femoral muscle. Tendonitis can affect one or both knees. Distinguish between infectious and non-infectious nature of the disease.
The causes of this disease, there are many:
- frequent micro-traumas of the tendons: injuries, tension, dislocations, etc.;
- intense physical activity;
- fungal or bacterial infection;
- deforming arthrosis of knee joints;
- arthritis of the knee joint;
- deformation of extremities;
- wearing uncomfortable shoes;
- the presence of excess weight;
- the use of certain medication;
- age-related degenerative changes of the knee tendons etc.
When increased physical activity is the biggest burden falls on the area of the knee tendons, which are repeatedly subjected to trauma. If the right to alternate activity with complete rest, these injuries can heal. Otherwise, tissue damage leads to degeneration of the tendons of the knee joint.
The disease affects primarily professional athletes. Doctors call this disease «jumper’s knee». At risk are workers employed in the agricultural and industrial sectors, the military, people older than 50 years. Occurs with age the natural aging process of ligaments and tendons, as a result, they are unable to cope even with small loads.
Symptoms of tendinitis of the knee
Tendinitis and sprain of the knee ligaments and tendons often confused with each other because of the similarity of symptoms. Inflammation of the knee tendons is developing consistently and is divided into 3 stages, each with its own symptoms:
- Stage 1: visible pain do not exist, can occur only with excessive physical exertion;
- Stage 2: you experience pain during excessive load the knee joint and at rest, immediately after exertion or exercise;
- Stage 3: pronounced pain syndrome, which tends to strengthen, even if the knee is in a calm state.
Tendonitis in the running form can lead to disruption of the strength of the connecting elements of the patellar tendon, which will ultimately rupture of the tendons. These stages of development is the other disease — stretching of the ligaments and tendons of the knee joint. To find effective treatment, it is important to hold the correct diagnosis.
In addition to the above main symptoms, tendonitis has a number of additional, commonly found in this disease. These include:
- changing the shape of the patella;
- appearance of swelling and redness of the knee joint;
- the crunch when driving;
- the limited mobility of the knee.
Depending on the localisation of tendinitis may have specific characteristics.
Diagnosis of inflammation of the knee tendons
With the appearance of pain or simply discomfort in the knee joint must, without delay, apply to a good specialist. The effectiveness of the treatment of the disease will depend on the correctness of the diagnosis. For his faithful performances required to conduct a comprehensive examination of the patient, the tendons in the knee area, which includes:
- the identification of clinical manifestations;
- the study of laboratory data;
- instrumental examination.
History taking involves a personal conversation with the patient, identifying the circumstances of the occurrence of the disease. Are important conditions of work and life of the sick. The next stage is the review of clinical manifestations: patient survey of the place, its palpation, determination of the location of pain, presence of edema, obtaining other information about the disease. An experienced doctor at this stage of the survey will be able to differentiate tendonitis, a sprain, a fracture or the presence of pathological processes of the patellar tendon.
The results of laboratory studies are necessary to confirm the changes suffered by the tendons of the knee in infectious or rheumatoid process. However, in this case to distinguish inflammation of the tendon and a sprain, injury or other disease is problematic. Instrumental examination of the patient space, which includes x-ray, ultrasound, MRI, will help make the diagnosis.
X-rays will indicate the presence of fracture, cracks joint, and tendonitis will determine at the last stages, where there are salt deposits. MRI and CT reveal torn ligaments and tendons, their various degenerative changes requiring surgical intervention. The survey data allow us to differentiate between a sprain, fracture, inflammation of the tendons and the presence of other ailments.
The most accurate picture of the disease shows an ultrasound, which is determined by the stage of disease development, localization, nature of the inflammatory process and other components.
The treatment of the inflammatory process
After diagnosis, the doctor prescribes the use of certain therapies. It should be noted that when tendinite not to self-medicate. A comprehensive treatment of the inflammatory process of the knee tendon includes:
- anti-inflammatory therapy;
- pain relief;
- surgical intervention, if necessary.
In the treatment 1 and 2 stage of disease is the use of drugs in combination with physiotherapy. Usually prescribed medication from the group of non-steroid to relieve the inflammation, reduce the pain. Drugs can be introduced inside by injection and applied externally in the form of creams, ointments, gels. If the treatment is ineffective, as a last resort apply corticosteroid injections into the lesion. But to abuse such injections dangerous, they can cause the weakening and rupture of tendons. When the infectious nature of tendonitis doctors prescribe antibacterial drugs and antibiotics.
Sore knee, especially in the acute stage of the disease, you should immobilize, fix bandage. You can use a cold which reduces pain and relieves swelling. After relief of the acute phase of the disease necessarily assigned to physical therapy, including heat treatments, ultrasound, electrophoresis, currents Bernard, etc., Good results are massage and therapeutic exercise for stretching and strengthening muscles of the thigh. Required to wear a special orthopedic Shoe that reduces the load on the tendon the posterior tibial muscle, the various arch supports.
If conservative treatment methods do not produce tangible and the desired result, then shows the antibiotics and surgery. During the operation, which can be performed by arthroscopic or open, conducted an autopsy of the ligamentous channel in the region of the patella, the dissection of the tendon and removal of degenerative changed tissues. The postoperative period lasts up to 3 months.
It is always easier to prevent disease than to treat it. Knowledge of simple preventive measures will help to avoid tendinitis. First of all, be sure to execute warm-up exercises for all muscle groups before the main training, a gradual increase in loads, timely rest, etc.
Various diseases of the tendons of the knee joint can be avoided if to observe all recommendations for their prevention. Tendonitis is not a sentence, the patient may be completely cured by modern treatment methods.