Injury of the ankle: symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of injuries of the ankle
Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of injury of the ankle joint
Injury of the ankle joint – an injury that often appears in athletes, it is not excluded and consumer option. Must be timely and correctly to help the victim to avoid complications.
Features of the joint
The ankle is one of the largest joints of the human skeleton. It consists of three bones:
- small tibia;
- foot (talus).
All these parts are connected by a joint capsule, also there are ligaments. You can have the title to identify that this joint connects the lower leg and the foot. Ankle are involved most of all when walking, he feels the pressure of the whole body. Thus, the injured joint leads to temporary lameness, reduces efficiency. Therefore, among other types of limb injuries, injury to the ankle is the most dangerous.
The injured joint may lead to damage of the muscles, nervous tissues, blood vessels.
Causes of injury
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When you suffer injury to the ankle bone and soft tissue. Often be damaged nerves and blood vessels.
Damage to the ankle can when falling from a height. Altitude has little effect on the degree of injury. Importantly, how did the touch with a solid surface.
To injure you ankle when struck on a hard surface. This will not necessarily fight, the injury can be obtained in the home.
A bad result can lead special anatomical structure of the joint. If glenoid bone sticks out, or on her lack of subcutaneous fat layer, it becomes vulnerable to injury.
This kind of injury-prone athletes. To injury can cause, for example, improper landing when jumping. It is not excluded occupational injuries. A person can hurt himself badly turned.
Before starting treatment, make sure that there was no fracture. You need to know which symptoms appear in a person with injury of the ankle joint.
The clinical picture
The first signs of joint disease include a sharp pain that appears when you touch the solid surface. It is so strong that people literally can’t make the first move. The pain lasts for several days, but quite often it is much faster.
The second symptom is edema. Swelling leads to pain, even if the swelling is minor.
The damaged tissue can form a hematoma. This is because inside is bleeding, which has an impact on the soft tissue. As a result, they begin to increase in volume, the skin appear red and purple smudges.
It can also be noted and the symptoms of injury of the ankle joint:
- pain while attempting movement of the foot;
- pain in the whole foot;
- aching pain, which appears due to pinched nerve endings.
Numbness of fingers is a common symptom of injury. If there is such a symptom, high risk of fracture or ligament rupture. An accurate diagnosis can only surgeon on the basis of x-ray image, which usually make 2 projections.
Symptoms of the injured ankle are similar in their characteristics, sprain, broken ankle and torn tendon. Before you start treatment, you need to know exactly what type of injury appeared in the ankle.
How to diagnose?
Qualified already at the initial admission will be able to find out the nature of the injury and determine how dangerous they are. To confirm the diagnosis, will be assigned to an x-ray.
Trauma may develop as a result of stress when the ankle is subjected to a shock overload. In this case will be scheduled for MRI. If the cause of injury was a disease of the internal organs, requires the intervention of the surgeon and the therapist.
Any injury requires first aid. It should be not only timely but correct. To alleviate the condition of the victim and to avoid the appearance of complications, you must take the following actions:
- lay or sit the patient to raise the leg above the level of the body, it is necessary to reduce swelling and pain;
- on the affected place applying emulsion How, it will reduce pain and swelling, if no such means, the foot draw an iodine grid;
- take the elastic bandage, (if not, fit a bandage or a handkerchief), in the direction from the fingers and later produce the ligation of the legs, this should be done very slowly, otherwise you’ll lose blood flow, to the same effect may result in overly tight bandage;
- to the damaged surface, apply a cold compress, leave it for a long time – at least an hour;
- if a person suffers severe pain, give him painkillers – Analgin, Ketonal, Diclofenac.
The first day after the impact, protect ankle. They will need to rest, the victim is better to stay in bed. When traveling, you can use a cane to walk.
The next day begin more intensive therapy.
How to treat the injury?
The damaged joint is treated in the traditional way, on the basis of a course of drug therapy. To enhance the therapeutic effect is permissible to apply the methods of traditional therapy.
The program of treatment of the ankle joint as follows:
- On the second day after injury, begin to use external funds in the form of gels, ointments, creams. In their composition should not contain steroids. Medication applied to the skin three times a day. Continue to use Retinol. To restore circulation, you will need to put Polimed and leave for half an hour.
- Injured place you want to regularly massage when the pain subsides. Massage movements are doing in the area of the lower leg and fingers. After the massage is useful to do some gymnastics. In the course of gymnastic procedures perform flexor and extensor movements of the feet, then produce rotation of the foot.
- To eliminate the swelling as soon as possible, appoint venotonic also useful in this case are the b vitamins.
- In a week you can start to do the bath. For this purpose in warm water, diluted sea or table salt. It is important that the water in the bath was not overly hot. Optimum temperature is 37 degrees, the treatment lasts about 20 minutes.
- In the course of therapy includes alcohol compresses, also to the bruised places you can attach the bags with warm salt.
The treatment can be supplemented with physiotherapy, the most effective is electrophoresis. Treatment methods physical therapy methods administered a week later after the injury has occurred. The patient is prescribed:
- paraffin, which can be used to reduce inflammation;
- diadynamic current will remove the pain;
- by using magnetic therapy you can remove swelling and promote blood flow;
- ultrasound increases the effectiveness of treatment, under the influence of rays, improves the absorption of drugs that stimulates the function of blood vessels and lymph nodes;
- UHF helps to restore metabolism;
- mud therapy improves the condition of tissues.
In addition to medical methods, there are specialized therapeutic measures that make the health facilities. The procedure is carried out by specialists. Conducted pre-blockade of the damaged area, this is administered procaine. The sore on the affected area impose a plaster Longuet or elastic bandage. The doctor locks the foot in position. The position of the foot – right angle facing outward. Then gypsum foot: from the upper third of the leg to the ends of the fingers.
If the hematoma has acquired menacing character, in the joint accumulates pus or fluid, prescribe puncture.
Correctly prescribed treatment will help to avoid the risk of complications. Correct therapy gives the opportunity to relieve swelling and pain for a couple of days.
Traditional methods of treatment
Folk remedies should not replace conventional therapy. But as additional measures, enhancing the therapeutic effect to traditional methods to use.
A good way to eliminate edema and inflammation are compresses and baths made from decoctions of herbs. Compresses can be made of:
- a decoction of sage (a tablespoon of raw pour a glass of boiling water);
- cabbage leaves, leaf slugger, so he gave the juice, then place on the affected area and bandage;
- chamomile, horsetail, birch buds, sporysha their ground and pour vodka or alcohol in a couple of days the infusion is ready, which smeared the injured spot.
Traditional methods refer to alternative medicine. Before you start to use this method, you should consult with a specialist.
Ankle injury may cause the following serious diseases:
- synovitis accompanied by accumulation of fluid and pus in the joint;
- hemarthrosis leads to accumulation of blood;
- arthrosis starts the process of degeneration in the joint area;
- syndrome sudaka, causes of osteoporosis, this can atrophy the surrounding tissue.
If not treated the injured joint, he can lose their function and atrophy. In the case when treatment was administered, the patient fulfilled all the recommendations of the doctor, but the pain is still not gone, should be addressed to the traumatologist.
To prevent injury, it is necessary first to monitor the physical loads, to avoid excessive pressure on the joint. It is necessary to fortify health. Don’t wear uncomfortable tight shoes.
A bruised ankle is a accident that cannot be predicted. And yet, if we take action, we can reduce the risk of its occurrence.