Knee arthroscopy: implications and methodology
Various joint disease develops most often in those who actively goes in for sports, leads an active lifestyle with defined loads. However, the load for each person is different so some, even a brisk walk may be over-tiring, causing pain in the joints. The knee joint is considered vulnerable because it has a complex structure. Because of their anatomical and biomechanical features, it more prone to injury.
Because of its specific structure and relationships between other elements in the joint is difficult to examine the pathology developing in this area. Sometimes injuries cannot restore the knee, surgical intervention is required. To determine the disease or the degree of damage to knee joints, doctors have resorted to modern methods of research. In some situations, a diagnostic arthroscopy is shown.
What is arthroscopy and when you need it
Knee arthroscopy is a surgical method of research in which the knee is injected endoscopic instrument. It is shaped like a thin tube. This instrument is called an arthroscope. With the help of such a device can be performed as a diagnostic procedure, and treatment.
This method of diagnosis appeared in the 60-ies of the last century and nowadays is a standard procedure during the inspection of the joint. Arthroscopy is performed in a single day, after which the patient can go home and carry out further treatment on an outpatient basis. Recovery after surgery takes time, sometimes you need to use drugs.
The examination using the endoscopic tool is so. The skin is cut, small size, and then in the joint cavity, the arthroscope. At the end of the device is optical fiber and lenses. Through them, the inspection of the knee on the inside. Camcorder, built-in tool that transfers the image on the monitor. For examination of the joint using a tool with a diameter of 5 mm or 7 mm.
Thanks to this procedure it is possible to accurately determine the extent of damage or disease of the knee joint. The advantage of arthroscopy is that, if necessary, from the diagnostic procedures you can immediately go for surgery. Intervention knee minimally injured. Recovery after knee arthroscopy can be performed at home.
The advantages of the procedure are as follows:
- small incisions during the surgery;
- surgery is performed as an outpatient;
- not required plaster immobilization;
- a short period of rehabilitation;
- time hospital stay is minimal.
Knee arthroscopy is indicated for arthritis, including degenerative, inflammatory, and infectious types of disease, as well as different knee injuries. This research method allows you to see changes in the inner surface of the joint. If the cartilage is destroyed and rubbed due to arthritis or osteoarthritis through arthroscopy cannot detect this problem.
Arthroscopic intervention is carried out with the appearance of cracks, isolated lesions of the cartilage. Crack fill specific liquid or paste, made from the cartilage cells of the patient, grown in a lab. Arthroscopic surgery is indicated if inflammatory arthritis which affects the joint pain. May require removal of the inflamed tissue or synovectomy.
Indications for surgery can be of different injuries that involve damage to the cartilage, torn ligaments, dislocated kneecaps.
Complications of surgical intervention
Arthroscopy is considered to be rather simple and safe procedure. Due to the fact that the size of the incision small, complications are minimized. However, in some cases, the formation of edema or pain. Some patients experience tingling in the operated knee.
More serious effects of the surgery can be infection in the form of suppuration, sepsis or ganita. Damage inside the joint affecting the cartilage, meniscus, ligaments or nerves. It should be noted that swelling or pain after surgery is a normal and inevitable phenomenon. The presence of such symptoms for the first time after surgery does not necessarily talking about infections or other unpleasant consequences.
If after the operation swelling of the knee joint and bad pains, you should immediately contact a doctor. It needs to ensure that these symptoms will not lead to serious complications. Sometimes swelling can be triggered by the load on the injured leg. In this case, it should be possible to provide the foot rest. For movement, use crutches or a cane. You need to start walking gradually, first to travel short distances and as recovery to increase the load.
If there is swelling, it is recommended to apply cold. Put in the ice pack and be sure to wrap everything in a soft towel. Hold cold for 15-20 minutes 3-4 times a day. Well helps to cope with swelling of the right foot position on the bed. Put the leg on a pillow above heart level and keep them so for some time.
You can use a pressure bandage. With the help of elastic straps wrap the leg from foot to thigh. To eliminate the swelling after the surgery, the patient is doing lymphatic drainage or lymphatic massage.
Some patients after arthroscopic surgery hear crunching in the knee joint. If such a phenomenon does not feel pain, there are no other unpleasant symptoms in the form of swelling, raise the temperature of the body is not disturbed function of the knee, the crunch is considered a normal variant and does not require the adoption of additional measures.
Even some healthy people without pathologies of the joints, I hear a crunch in the knee. However, if there is a constant discomfort under the Cup, feel the pressure, if you want to pull the foot to reduce pain, and thus there is a crunch, you need to seek the advice of a doctor.
Rehabilitation after surgery
Rehabilitation after arthroscopy may be performed in a hospital or at home. In the recovery procedure includes:
- change dressings that are made on the first day, and then on the third and ninth;
- receive pain medication in the presence of pain;
- electrical muscle stimulation;
Physical therapy after arthroscopy of the knee joint includes simple exercises that you can do at home. Lying on your back, raise and lower your leg in a straight position for 15 times, repeating this charging every 2 hours. Lie down on one side and raise injured leg 10 times, hold it in this position for 10 seconds. Do massage, with slide kneecap. Take a walk for short distances. Can weekly, for 15-20 minutes to ride a bike. Use compression stockings or special bandages. In the shower apply a waterproof plaster.
Adhering to simple regulations of doctors, you can restore foot function in a short period. However, the structure of the joint will never be the same, even if the operation was successful.