Knee injury: damage to the menisci, cruciate ligaments
With knee injuries of different degree of complexity faced by most people. The usual movement can not cause a knee injury, but the human body tend to gradually wear and aging, which significantly increases the risk of damage to the structures of the knee.
In most cases, the pathology occurs in sports, less injury often have amenity and other reasons. Very easy to damage the knee joint when falling or improper landing during a jump.
The structure of the knee joint
One of the features of the knee joint are its major dimensions. The knee joint is shared by two partitions — the menisci. Ligaments, muscles and tendons connect the upper femur with the tibia and fibula located in the lower part. The inner part of the bone surfaces in the knee joint covers the articular cartilage, which absorbs impact. Smooth and supple, the cartilage surface facilitates the sliding of the bones of the knee that is so necessary when performing movements.
acenia, less often, the injury is so serendipitea one of the components of the knee joint usually leads to severe pain and often inflammation.
As the knee joint is the most complex, the risk of damage is high. Such types of diseases like arthritis and osteoporosis, increase the likelihood of injury to the knee joint.
Pathology of the knee joint treated depending on degree of difficulty. In most cases, quite conservative l, which required urgent surgical intervention. Knee damage, which treatment must be immediate first requires examination. If necessary, the specialist may give direction to further research. Only by determining the degree of complexity of the injury, the doctor prescribes individual treatment.
The most common injuries of the knee joint
Lesions may be different, these include:
Often injuries of the knee are combined. Any damage to the knee that require attention. Ignored trauma can remind myself in a few years, when pain can occur with weather changes or after physical exertion (including minor).
Trauma may occur when a knee strike, an unsuccessful jump, the fall, etc. Any injury causes bleeding in the knee joint. Depending on the severity of the injury, you may notice a swelling edema. The victim torture the pain. In case of fracture of the patella may bifurcate, which is accompanied by pronounced symptoms.
In most cases of internal injuries are associated with damage to the meniscus precisely. Are most frequently found among athletes and people performing hard physical work. In connection with physiological peculiarities, among children under 15 years of age, tears of the meniscus in the knee injuries is practically not observed.
Cruciate ligament damage
Very often, direct trauma on the knee joint, tibia or femur, leading to anterior cruciate ligament rupture. To the pathology of this kind can result in excessive bending of the knee, which is called hyperextension.
Hyperextension can cause not only direct blows to the knee, but also those that have the distal part of the tibia. In addition, the rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament can be caused by a blow on the knee from the rear leg. This can lead to the displacement of the tibia and cause this type of injury.
Treatment of the joint
Any injury in which the knee joint is suffering, require treatment. Damage to the knee (the joint) can be very serious, so the victim should give first aid. Knee damage, symptoms of which may appear quite pronounced, it can often be less dangerous than the damage that in the first few minutes there is only redness and pain. When providing first aid it is important not to forget about it and act strictly according to instructions.
First aid is a few fairly simple actions. First of all, the injured leg should be fully rest. As long as the damage to the knee will not be seen by a specialist, it is recommended to walk with crutches. In order to reduce pain after knee injury, you can apply a cold compress, this method will prevent the formation of a strong edema. Next is to impose elastic bandage. It is very important that elastic band pulls the knee to measure without exacerbating pain. To reduce pain and to prevent severe swelling may help the elevated location of the injured leg. For this purpose you can use the pillow.
If damage to the knee led to significant deformations of the doctor-traumatologist needs to be immediate, since it may be a dislocation of the knee joint. This pathology is very rare, but extremely dangerous. Nerves and blood vessels are under a lot of pressure sprained shins. Dangerous a knee injury the fact that it can lead to very serious consequences. It is very important that the dislocation should be promptly reduced, to take any independent action in any case impossible.
The knee injury should be immediately examined by a doctor if the leg movements are accompanied by a painful clicking. When the sensations of instability of the knee joint and the mowing feet need a visit to the traumatologist. Passing severe pain in the region of the knee, difficulty in movements of the leg or full restriction of movement are also an undeniable cause for an urgent visit to a specialist.
Acute injury of the knee joint
For the sudden appearance of acute injury can lead: fall, twisting of foot, excessive bending, direct hit, etc severe pain, swelling and bruising in the area of the injured knee are the first signs that damage is serious enough.
Very often, the knee injury is a result of excessive loads. Associated it can be with repetitive actions or excessive loads. As already mentioned, damage of this type often occur in people involved in sports, especially cyclists, runners, tennis players, climbers and gymnasts. It should be noted that rehabilitation after injury requires long-term provision of rest for the damaged knee, so sports activities the victim will be able to return soon. Rehabilitation after injury can take quite a long time, but it depends on the severity of the damage to the knee joint.
Emergency medical assistance includes provision of complete rest when needed with splinting. The victim is assigned a medication, in most cases, it’s painkillers and anti-inflammatories. Recovery from trauma often requires physiotherapy. In the most serious injuries of the knee surgical intervention is necessary. The treatment usually depends entirely on the severity of the injury, and the specialist takes into account the age, condition and individual characteristics of the patient.
Light injury: treatment at home
In that case, if the knee injury is mild, a special treatment may not be required. While edema and constant pain can torment the victim from several days to several weeks. There are methods that you can apply at home, they will help you to reduce the pain and reduce swelling.
First ensure that the damaged knee complete rest. Make sure that the injured leg was elevated. If to relieve pain does not help even a pain medication, you can apply a cold compress. It will assist to remove swelling. The first time it is recommended to avoid taking hot baths as they can lead to significant aggravation of the edema. On top of the injured area, apply an elastic bandage. Can use a specially designed ointment, they will speed up the recovery process of damaged tissues of the knee joint.
It is important to understand that the degree of complexity of the injury is able to identify only a doctor, so before yourself to apply any measures necessary to visit a specialist.