Metacarpophalangeal joint: prevention and treatment
The metacarpophalangeal joint is formed from the articular surfaces of the heads of the metacarpal joint and the depressions of the first phalanges of the hands. Heads of the metacarpal bones on the palm side have a spherical shape, and the sides slightly flattened. Glenoid cavity of the first phalanx represents the shape of an ellipse and is slightly smaller in relation to the heads of metacarpal bones.
Connecting capsule are free, mostly on the inner side of the brush. Both sides of the articular capsule is fixed by ligaments. They stretch from the heads of the metacarpal bones to the hills of the first phalanx.
The structure of the metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints of the hands
The Palmar ligaments intersect with the transverse metacarpal ligaments. The transverse ligaments of all three, they join together the metacarpal-phalangeal joints, do not allow them to disperse and strengthen the brush. These ligaments have a high mobility due to the difference in size between the articular heads of the metacarpal joints and phalanges. All metacarpal sustavchiki hands spherical, with the exception of the thumb.
Transverse metacarpal joints provide flexion and extension of fingers up to 90º. Lateral abduction of the fingers is possible to 50º. The joint is also capable of rotary motion.
Joints of the thumb are hinge. At the end of the Palmar surface are two tubercles. In the articular capsule are situated two bones (lateral and medial), on the inner part of which is hyaline cartilage cover. The joint allows less movement to the thumb than the metacarpophalangeal joints of the remaining fingers of the hands.
Interphalangeal joints of the hand connecting the proximal phalanx of the index, middle, ring finger and little finger. The thumb interphalangeal joint connects the proximal and distal phalanx.
The interphalangeal joints are formed from the heads of the trochlear shape and holes with a comb-shaped middle phalanges of the hands. From the back side of the articular capsule is thin, and with the other side supported by the collateral and Palmar ligaments. Interphalangeal joints represent a hinge joint. The lateral ligaments does not allow the joint to perform the lateral movement. Of motion of a joint is limited to the front axle, range of flexion and extension of phalanges — from 50 to 90º.
Rheumatoid arthritis of the hands
Arthritis of the joints of the hands is more common than arthritis in other limbs, is because these joints are very mobile and are constantly subjected to stress, mechanical and thermal. Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory process in connective tissue and joint damage of the hands.
Symptoms of arthritis of the joints of the hands:
Rheumatoid arthritis is the most common form of the disease. Apart from him, is found in osteoarthritis, in which there are degenerative changes in the cartilage, and infective arthritis in which the cartilage, the connection penetrates the infection.
The effectiveness of treatment of arthritis of the hands depends on timely medical aid to the patient. Treatment of arthritis of the hands starts with the application of anti-inflammatory drugs: non-steroidal or hormonal. Drugs are selected based on the degree of inflammation and the individual tolerability of drugs by the patient. Medicines can be in the form of ointments, tablets or injections.
To restore cartilage using special food Supplement, chondroprotectors. From physiotherapy is performing phonophoresis, electrophoresis, heat, water and mud.
Specialists recommend physiotherapy and massage, is also useful swimming. It is important to pay attention to the diet. You need to increase the intake of foods rich in vitamin E and D, eat more vegetables, fruits, nuts, herring, and liver.
Stop metatarsophalangeal joints: structure and disease
Metatarsophalangeal joints are formed by the articular surfaces of the metatarsal heads and phalanges of the feet. The foot joint is at a distance of 2-2,5 cm from the interdigital folds. On the back of the joints of the foot over the metatarsophalangeal joint is the extensor muscle. From the sole channels are fibrous tendons.
The strengthening of the first metatarsophalangeal joint allows the tendon of the abductor muscles. Sesamoid bones the joint capsule and increase shoulder strength and protect the tendons. From the interdigital gap are tendons, which pass under megaloschemoi ligament. Top bunch covers interosseous muscle.
The development of this type of arthritis is influenced by the following factors:
- a heavy load on the joint or medium traffic, but which is critical;
- various injuries;
- repetitive microtrauma (most often osteoarthritis this type is found in professional athletes);
- wearing uncomfortable shoes.
All these factors compromise the blood flow of the foot. It contributes to the development of the metatarsophalangeal osteoarthritis. The main symptoms of osteoarthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint include:
- pain when walking;
- redness of the skin near the joint;
- a small temperature increase in the area of pathology;
- gait disorders: walking man begins to walk with a limp.
There are three main stages of the disease.
Diagnosis of diseases of the foot is carried out using x-rays. The photos show irregularities on the articular surfaces of bones and narrowing of the joint space.
Treatment and prevention of osteoarthritis of the metatarsophalangeal joint
Arthrosis of the foot treated, as a rule, conservative method. Effective is physiotherapy: UHF, electrophoresis, phonophoresis and magnetotherapy. When conservative treatment is ineffective, steroid drugs have entered the injection method.
Inflammation and pain in the metatarsophalangeal joint is removed from the NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). However, these drugs adversely affect the gastric mucosa, therefore, is not prescribed to patients with the presence of gastritis or stomach ulcers.
At the last stage of the disease, the ineffectiveness of conservative treatment can be scheduled for surgery. The goal is to reconstruct the metatarsal bone and fix the joint (arthrodesis procedure) using endoprosthesis.
Arthrosis of the foot occurs due to increased stress on the joint, so the first preventive measure of disease is the reduction of the load. For this you need to choose comfortable shoes, medium heel. It is also important to maintain normal weight and to give up foods with high salt content.
Relieve the symptoms of the disease can home. At the initial stage of arthritis help salt baths, compresses of aloe and honey hot compresses. It is useful to drink teas from medicinal anti-inflammatory herbs: St. John’s wort, chamomile and Linden.