Miniscope: causes and symptoms, methods of diagnosis and treatment

Менископатия: причины и симптомы, методы диагностики и леченияMiniscope — a disease characterized by violation of the integrity of the menisci in the knee joint. The menisci are two cartilage pads kind. They are needed in order to mitigate and damping load on the head bones connected at the joint, to avoid overload and damage. In addition, the menisci stabilize the joint by compensating for a mismatch of the articular surfaces of the bones forming the knee joint.

Relatively recently, it was found that after removal of the meniscus observed systemic violations in the work of the whole joint, as the bones lose their stability and protection from damage during the movement of the limbs and begin to wear out quickly. That is why most patients who have had meniscectomy, after a short time are diagnosed with osteoporosis or osteochondrosis. Overloading of the bone in this area is unacceptable, because even in normal operation, articulation accounts for the load of the entire body.


The reasons for the development of the disease

Most at risk for the development of miniscope represented professional athletes. Also includes people, often their activities are facing by raising different weights. In addition to irregular loads, to the emergence of miniscope may cause long-term presence in the posture of squatting or kneeling.

The disease can develop under the influence of secondary injury, which is always accompanied by emission of significant quantities of harmful toxic substances, appearing under the influence of the collapse of the surrounding damaged tissues. In this case, the meniscus under the action of the toxins quickly loses its elasticity. In addition, it increases the risk of formation of cysts.

Given that in case the knee has two meniscus (lateral and medial), the disease is of two types.

  • Lateral form. In this variant of the disease there is a loss of the outer meniscus. Such pathology develops rarely. Statistics show that only 20% will lose the lateral meniscus.
  • The medial form. In this form of the disease develops pathology of the inner meniscus. This variant occurs in 75% of cases.
  • The disease can develop under the influence of excessive stress, trauma and previous diseases. Each of the forms of lesion of the meniscus has its own characteristics.

    Менископатия: причины и симптомы, методы диагностики и лечения

    Professional athletes are often observed serious injuries of the meniscus

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    Pathogenesis

    It should be noted that cases of lesions of both menisci are extremely rare and are observed only in 5% of patients. The disease can occur in different ways. You can highlight some of the most common injuries to the menisci.

  • The gap and damage the front and rear of the body, and in addition, horns, located in transchondral region.
  • To increase the mobility of meniscus damage and ligament rupture, which is accompanied by a periodic pinching of the meniscus by changing the position of the knee joint.
  • Chronic injuries and degeneration of the meniscus.
  • Cystic degeneration of the outer meniscus.
  • Separation of the meniscus from its attachment in the region of the front or rear of the body or horns in pericapsular region.
  • Miniscope is a pretty insidious disease that can develop even in people who are not followers of weightlifting.

    Often the disease is observed on the background of the damage during the run, bad drops and just everyday injuries. Predisposing factors for the emergence of miniscope are previously suffering arthritis or gout. These diseases directly affect the condition of all tissues of the joint. So if the person had previously had their acute form, it should continuously monitor the status of their knee and respond quickly to the emergence of certain symptoms.

    Менископатия: причины и симптомы, методы диагностики и лечения

    The extent of damage of the meniscus of the knee

    All degenerative diseases are to some extent contributing to the development of miniscope. The fact that the development of these forms of ailments is invariably accompanied by a decreased production of synovial fluid. This leads to the fact that all of the cartilage surfaces in joints become thinner, lose their strength and elasticity.


    Symptomatic manifestations of the disease

    The disease has both acute and chronic phase currents. In the acute stage, most patients feel an acute pain in the damaged knee. The pain may be localized at a particular point or manifested in certain movements. Typically, there are symptoms of reactive inflammatory process, the main appearance of which is to increase the local temperature in the region of the knee joint. In most cases, a decrease in motor abilities in the area of the knee joint.

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    When damaged menisci is often observed that the appearance of the effusion, cysts, or hemarthrosis. In this case, the intra-articular fluid with the admixtures of blood or pus forms a seal in the popliteal and lateral regions, which leads to a further limitation. By themselves, cysts are dangerous because the accumulation of fluid often develop purulent abscesses, which can lead to extensive lesions of the entire knee joint.

    Менископатия: причины и симптомы, методы диагностики и лечения

    MRI of the knee for diagnosis of the disease

    In addition, the cyst is filled with synovial fluid that can burst, leading to effusion, permeation of the surrounding soft tissues and the formation of extensive edema. In the absence of proper treatment about 2-3 weeks observed the extinction of the symptoms of reactive inflammatory process. In addition, reduced levels of pain.

    In this period there is a transition of the disease into the chronic form. The main clinical signs of the development of chronic miniscope is the occurrence of infiltration in the capsule of the joint. Also there is a complete blockade of motor ability of the joint and the emergence of a large accumulation of effusion.

    A strong blockade of the joint can be observed far not in all cases, because the meniscus during movement activity is always exposed to compression from other elements of the joint. Therefore, a complete detachment of the meniscus and the displacement of its position is extremely rare.


    Methods of diagnosis and treatment

    If the symptoms of the disease manifested not fully diagnose the disease of the knee joint in the anamnesis is extremely difficult. Given this, most doctors appoints a number of studies, involving the visualization of individual elements of the knee joint. Most often in the diagnosis of this disease is assigned to the following study:

    • ultrasound scan of the knee joint;
    • arthroscopy;
    • termomassazhnaya;
    • contrast arthrography;
    • simple arthrography.
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    In the absence of the patient a significant amount of excess weight may be assigned palpation non-invasive study. The doctor puts the patient’s foot on the stand and asked to perform a number of simple passive movements. If you experience slipping, clicking and moving the meniscus can be diagnosed miniscope the knee joint. But to treat only on the basis of this method of diagnosis is impossible, as it does not give enough information about the specifics of the damage.

    After you have identified all features of the course of miniscope knee joint, treatment is assigned depending on the available data. If there are signs of ruptures of the meniscus, as a rule, appointed by arthroscopy, which helps to remove accumulated in the joint synovial fluid and repair the damaged meniscus. If there is degeneration of the cartilage present in the knees, can be assigned to conservative treatment, involving the puncture of removal of the effusion, the introduction of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, the reception of chandrasekharan and therapeutic exercise.

    Hope for the conservative and maloinvazivnogo treatment is not necessary, since in most cases need a surgical intervention to clean the capsule of the joint from infiltration and restore the integrity of tissues.