Multiple myeloma (plasmacytoma): symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis
Multiple myeloma: causes, treatment and prognosis
Tumors in the spine are rare, more common in older people.
Cancer tumors can be both benign and malignant nature.
Benign tumors include:
- osteoid osteoma;
- aneurysmal bone cyst;
- eosinophilic granuloma;
- giant cell tumors.
The types of malignancies in the spine following:
- metastatic education;
- plasmacytoma or disease Rusticola Calera (the most common cancer of the bone);
- osteogenic sarcoma (ranked second);
Plasmacytoma – what is it?
Multiple myeloma or plasmacytoma is characterized as a cancer of the bone marrow, which is a modified plasma cells that no longer perform their functions and cease to produce b-lymphocytes. Last participate in the exercise of the functions of the human immune system.
Mutated cells do not enter the blood, but they produce abnormal immunoglobulins (paraproteins) in it do. This is accompanied by the deposition in tissues of amyloid, which leads to disturbances in the various organs – heart, joints, kidneys.
The disease plasmacytomas is most often diagnosed in elderly people over 60 years of age, in men more often than women.
Very rarely the disease is found in people under 40 years. The causes and the etymology of the occurrence of this disease is presently unknown.
The causes of the disease
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The nature of the disease is still not fully understood, but, according to experts, there are a number of reasons that so or otherwise, can lead to plasmocytoma:
- tetanus infection, tuberculosis, pyelonephritis, hepatitis, cholecystitis and other diseases, which can act as a stimulus to the production of antigens;
- genetic predisposition;
- changes in T-cell suppression.
- radiation and prolonged intoxication.
Despite the fact that the disease is already well understood, the true causes still remain unknown.
Plasma cells produce a paraprotein, is present in every human body, but the immune system is healthy people are able to suppress them.
Varieties of the disease
Plasmacytoma may vary depending on such factors as the nature of the myeloma cells themselves, their distribution, and the type of paraprotein produced.
Depending on the distribution there are:
- diffuse myeloma;
- diffuse focal;
Cellular composition can be distinguished:
- polymorphonuclear cell.
Regarding the nature paraprotein distinguish myeloma:
- type M-, A — and G-myeloma.
To date, a large part of the disease is G-myeloma, which accounts for about 70% of all observed patients. Rarely, a myeloma (20%) and myeloma Bence-Jones (15%).
Signs and symptoms
The initial stage of the disease may be asymptomatic and only manifest clinically with increased ESR in the blood of the patient.
Further, the patient may feel malaise, weakness, lose weight and feel bone pain. The most frequent symptom of myeloma is pain syndrome in the bones.
Other external and internal manifestations are the consequence of changes in human bone tissue (anemia, increased blood viscosity, disruption of the kidneys, etc.).
The pain is usually localized in the spine and ribs, and manifests itself mainly during movements. In some parts of pain syndrome may be of a permanent character, which often indicates the presence of fractures in this region.
The progress of the disease leads to destruction of bone, resulting in mobilization of calcium from the affected tissue and can manifest symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, drowsiness and, in severe cases, coma.
Often patients with multiple myeloma occurs symptoms such as susceptibility to various infections, dictated by the General decline of the human immune system.
Almost half of the patients suffering of comorbid diseases associated with kidney function.
The density and high viscosity of blood provokes neurological symptoms such as headaches, fatigue, visual disturbances. Often patients complain of numbness or tingling in the hands and feet.
With disease progression there is a growing anemia related to replacement of bone marrow by cancer cells, which disrupt the blood in the body. There are cases when anemia is the main symptom throughout the course of the disease.
Treatment of the disease
The choice of methods of treatment, like other cancers, depends on stage and extent of the process. There are two types of the disease:
- Sluggish, when the disease progresses very slowly and this process can last up to 10 years (10% of patients). In such cases, therapy is rarely used.
- Very aggressive – when the process of formation of pathogenic cells is very fast. In this case, it is advisable as soon as possible to apply medical treatment.
Currently, for the treatment of multiple myeloma, used the following methods:
- chemotherapy – effects on cancer cells toxins that destroy them;
- radiation therapy – the use of ionizing radiation;
- a bone marrow transplant or stem cells;
- surgery – removal of destroyed bone provided an isolated plasmacytoma.
Treatment aimed at the eradication of the plasmacytoma, accompanied, as a rule, and concomitant drug therapy designed to improve the quality of life of the patient, relieve pain, increase the level of hemoglobin in the blood and so on.
With the positive dynamics of the treatment continue for 1-2 years.
Traditional methods of treatment
Given the seriousness of this disease to human life, based on the treatment of multiple myeloma only folk remedies is unacceptable and even dangerous.
All drugs and their use should be discussed and coordinated with the attending physician.
Examples of recipes of alternative medicine:
- One of the symptoms of myeloma is increased blood viscosity, which will help to fight Melilotus officinalis. One tablespoon of herbs per Cup of boiling water, infuse one hour and strain. Should take three times a day for a quarter Cup before meals. The plant has anti-tumor and blood-thinning effects.
- Meadowsweet has a good antitumor effect, improves kidney function and reduces pain in the bones. One teaspoon of flowers of the plants need to pour a glass of boiling water, let stand for one hour, strain and take three times a day half a Cup before meals.
- To improve the kidneys will help using the infusion Veronica drug. You need to squeeze out of the plant two tablespoons of juice and mix with the same amount of goat milk. Mixture should take in the morning on an empty stomach.
When plasmocytoma, depending on the stage and rate of progression of the disease, there are several complications:
- violation of the kidneys;
- neurological symptoms;
- damage to the Central nervous system;
- pinched nerves, compression fractures;
- Fanconi syndrome and others.
A sad prognosis
Full recovery of patients with multiple myeloma is extremely rare. Modern medicine allows us to extend the patient’s life to an average of 5 years instead of 1-2 years without treatment.
The life expectancy of the patient depends on its sensitivity to drugs, patients with primary resistance to cytotoxic agents used in chemotherapy have an average survival to one year.
Long-term chemotherapy increases the risk of acute leukemia in 2-5% of cases. Also crucial is the stage at which cancer is diagnosed.
Cause of death may be the progression of the disease, acute renal failure, sepsis, stroke and others.
Long-term remission possible:
- with timely treatment to the doctor;
- in the absence of concomitant severe diseases;
- with good sensitivity to medications positive dynamics and minimal side effects.
Each patients treatment is tailored individually to control the process. Apply comprehensive measures (chemotherapy and hormonal drugs), which allow to achieve good results.
Practice shows that proper treatment can prolong the patient’s life to 10 years.
Unfortunately, myeloma person gives a very unfavorable prognosis. Mortality is high, cases of complete cure is very small. All that can make medicine today – to continue to increase life and improve its quality.
If you experience any symptoms, you need immediate access to experts for diagnosing diseases. Timely access to a doctor and appropriate treatment – a chance to survive.