Muscular tonic syndrome: causes, symptoms and treatment

Most often caused by muscular tonic syndrome

Muscular-tonic syndrome is characterized by muscle spasm, a reflex occurs, mainly in the development of degenerative diseases of the spine, irritation of the nerve, Innervate the outer part of the capsule of the intervertebral nerve.

Pain muscular-tonic syndrome is a common manifestation of osteochondrosis.

Syndrome occurs when excessive strain on the back or prolonged static load. As prolonged static loads, the muscles are constantly in tension, disturbance of venous outflow and the formation of edema surrounding muscle tissues.

Swelling occurs due to spasm of the muscles. Spasserovannye tight muscles compress nerve receptors and blood vessels located within the muscle fibres that leads to persistent pain.

Reflex, pain, muscle spasm increases even more. Formed a vicious circle between the spasm, oedema and pain manifestations.

Sometimes a muscle spasm acts as a protective reaction of the organism to external influences on the bones of the skeleton with a particular disease.

However, long-term, ongoing muscle spasm becomes a protective reaction in the pathological process and can cause changes in the muscles and the violation of their functions.

The manifestation of the syndrome is characterized by muscle tension, seal it and shortening, resulting in reduced range of motion.

There are two types of increased muscle tone:

  • diffuse, characterized by restricted involvement of the local stretch of the muscle;
  • generalizovanny, and involved muscles, and muscles-extensors.

Increased muscle tone can be mild and pronounced. With moderate hypertonicity muscle tenderness, muscle is present in the seal.

In marked muscle is very dense and painful on palpation, massage and heat lead to increased pain. Also distinguish between complicated and uncomplicated enhanced muscle tone.

Uncomplicated is characterized by the occurrence of pain only in the muscle, and complicated – radiating pain in the nearby area. The cause of pain during complicated option are disturbances of microcirculation and compression of vascular and nervous structures.

Often, with muscular tonic syndrome trigger points are formed, which is indicative of the occurrence of myofascial pain syndrome.

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The types of syndrome

The most common muscular-tonic syndromes:

  1. The anterior wall of the thorax. Simulation is characterized by painful manifestations of angina. Is different from angina by the absence of ECG changes. At movement the pain reduced.
  2. The anterior scalene muscle. Is characterized by increased tone of the scalene muscle, the formation of tunnel syndrome. In this syndrome, irritation of the neurovascular bundle and the violation of innervation of the ulnar nerve. There is an increase in painful symptoms with twisting and extension of the head. Often, the syndrome affects one side.
  3. The lower oblique muscle of head. It is characterized by pain in the neck from spazmirovannah muscle and increased when turning the head.
  4. Pectoralis minor. Is characterized by excessive abduction of the arm and its offset to the ribs. As a result, is pinched brachial plexus and artery, which in turn causes a disturbance of blood supply and innervation of the limb.
  5. Piriformis syndrome. Is characterized by compression of the sciatic nerve rotate the thigh muscle. Pain in this syndrome is similar to the pain with sciatica. Sometimes there is a feeling of numbness of the lower limbs.
  6. Iliac-lumbar muscles. Characterized by the presence of degenerative changes of the lumbar spine and muscle blocks in the thoracolumbar segment. Can be associated with diseases affecting the abdominal and pelvic organs.
  7. The shoulder-rib syndrome. Characterized by pain in the site of projection of the upper angle of the scapula, a crunch and a decrease in range of motion. This syndrome occurs due to degenerative changes of the cervical spine.
  8. Syndrome muscles that bend the broad fascia of the thigh. Characterized by the presence of degenerative changes in the lumbar spine, can occur reflexively, as a consequence of diseases of the hip joint or changes of the sacroiliac joints.
  9. Convulsive spasms of the calf muscles. Last a few seconds or a few minutes. Precipitating factor often is rapid flexion of the foot.
  10. Convulsive spasms of the back. Characterized by localized mainly in the mid back. There are different durations. Muscles-extensors of the back often find trigger points.
  11. Lumbalgia with muscular-tonic syndrome. Is characterized by subacute or chronic pain in the lumbar region. Occurs because of infringement of the nerve roots of the spinal cord in the implementation of abrupt bends, lifts heavy objects, injuries, etc Can happen on both the right and the left.
  12. Cervicalgia with muscular-tonic syndrome. Muscular tonic syndrome cervical is characterized by pain in the cervical spine, accompanied by limited mobility of the neck, tenderness, and spasm of the neck muscles. Sometimes there dizziness and visual disturbances. Often a disease occurs suddenly. In children this syndrome almost never occurs.
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Signs and symptoms

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The syndrome has specific symptoms, among which the main — aching pain that can spread to large areas of the body of the patient.

May be sick the whole right or left back, and maybe the whole cervical spine with the upper part of the back. Very rarely, usually in exacerbations, the patient is able to pinpoint the location of the pain.

Since pain is such a common character, it is very heavy to carry. Suffering from this syndrome human disturbed sleep. He can’t sleep in search of a less painful position.

A common symptom of pronounced muscular-tonic syndrome is the presence of muscle knots, the places of greatest pain.

They are called trigger points. In the long process in the affected muscle fibers deposited calcium salts, which is manifested in the form of dense and painful formations.

Many patients exhaust themselves because of symptoms of pain. They literally become desperate. Constant lack of sleep, fatigue, all this causes a bad mood and, as a consequence, depression.

Methods of pain treatment

The treatment of muscular tonic syndrome to start with eliminate the causes of a muscle spasm, that is to cure a major disease.

Therefore, treatment will depend on the pathological condition, which were brought to him.


For the treatment of muscle spasm use medications.

Prescribed muscle relaxants, drugs that cause muscle relaxation. These include mydocalm and sirdalud. To reduce pain and relieve inflammation used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as voltaren, Movalis.

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Occasionally, local injections of anesthetic drugs and glucocorticoids to stop the formation of pulses that are generated in the trigger points.

Additional methods

The use of manual therapy and massage normalizes muscle tone, and thus contributed to reduce the pain.

Acupuncture promotes the normal conduction of impulses along the nerve fibers, which also reduces pain. Sometimes, to reduce the load on the spine using special orthopedic things.

Different physiotherapy procedures such as electrophoresis and diadynamic currents improve circulation in the muscles.

A herniated intervertebral disk surgical treatment.

There are special methods, such as laser termoisolation, when it is carrying out the irradiation of the intervertebral discs changed with a special laser.

This procedure causes the growth of cartilage cells and thus accelerates the process of recovery. Apply this method for treatment of piriformis syndrome.


To prevent painful spasms apply physiotherapy. After the therapy to prevent spasms and maintain muscle tone prescribed physical therapy with special exercises.

In the event of symptoms should be to consult the doctor. With timely treatment the occurrence of persistent spasm of the muscles can be prevented.