Myofascial and abdominal compartment syndrome: what it is, treatment
Compartment syndrome — does it exist?
The concept of compartment syndrome, as well as many other terms in medicine, came to us from abroad. What does «syndrome» is not hard to guess, but the «compartment», despite the translation, could be interpreted as a chamber or enclosed space.
Difficult to determine exactly when they began to apply the concept of «compartment syndrome», but a rough start came a little later, the lifting of the iron curtain. However, the absence of term for, does not mean the absence of pathology. Naturally, with such a syndrome in Russia has also had many doctors, and not only that they faced, and adequately treated, the disease.
Used such terms as «pressure», «hypertension». So, if you translate a foreign name into our language, the disease is rightly considered to be a «confined space Syndrome».
What is a syndrome
Compartment syndrome is a complex variety of symptoms, the distinctive feature of which is abnormally high fascial pressure. This in turn leads to blocking access of blood to the tissues, and as a consequence is the withering away of the skin and fascial sheaths themselves.
The syndrome is divided into two different forms:
- Myofascial form (also called a local compartment syndrome). Often this type of violation causes the consequences, such as disturbed metabolism of muscle tissue and as a consequence her death.
- Abdominal compartment syndrome (More severe form).
Acute and chronic forms of the lesion
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Compartment syndrome is divided into two types according to the severity of the symptoms. They differ in the reasons for its appearance, but also by how long and how keenly develops each of the symptoms.
The acute form of the syndrome
Causes of acute syndrome serve as mechanical deformation, from a normal fracture to plaster cast the doctor wrong.
Is called the fault syndrome compression of the tissues in one form or another. To develop acute compartment syndrome also are capable of as a continuation of a long and dangerous operations.
There may be some eccentric reason, the type of snake bite, or put under the pressure of the fluids in the subcutaneous space.
The risk may be greater if the patient enters any blood-thinning substances, or the patient has a natural dysfunction of blood clotting.
Also, you can often see a similar problem if treated with rescue people who are unconscious under the rubble.
This form of abuse manifests itself regularly at powerlifters and bodybuilders, that is, all those moving iron, tries to be stronger to destroy your muscles so that they are increased in volume. And pay for it often serves as a compartment syndrome.
In addition, developing infringement and hypertension inside tissues, where there is a lot of pressure on bones and muscles. A good example here will serve as a Shin.
But still, most of the development of the syndrome affects people who are constantly on their feet, and among professional athletes, it is natural marathon runners, running at high distance, constantly loading the entire lower body, while having high blood pressure normal.
Why increasing fascial pressure?
There are several reasons, among which:
- bruises and hematomas formed after extensive subcutaneous hemorrhage;
- the one hematoma, but inflamed;
- the pressure exerted on the area of the body;
- cancers of the body
In order to measure the pressure increase, it is compared with normal, which for most people is held in the aisles of 8-9 mm. Hg.St.. and When the pressure neoficialnaja space is increased several times, and then being diagnosed with «compartment syndrome».
Depending on how much the pressure differs from the norm, klassificeret light and heavy forms of the disease.
The degree of damage and symptoms
Klassificeret the following types of violations depending on the severity of the lesion:
- Mild violations of the tissue of the limb is not cold, homeostasis and metabolism of tissues and organs is maintained, the pulse changes were observed. Podfartilo pressure is different from diastolic to 32-42 points. This is the easiest and sometimes even far-fetched form of the syndrome.
- Medium form – a Visible blanching of the tissues of the skin, the colder limb. Lack of oxygen in tissues, as well as other factors, lead to hypoesthesia or anesthesia of the limb. Pulse still can be felt, but it is much weaker than it should be fine. Podpolanie and diastolic pressure are equal.
- Severe – heart rate not at all, severe pallor of the tissues and a marked coldness of the limb. Podatelna pressure much more than diastolic.
It is important to distinguish this syndrome, and some diseases similar to symptoms.
Among others there are:
- blood clots in the arterial channels and mechanical damage to the blood vessels;
- problems with the Central nervous system and damage nerves;
- various forms of myositis.
To know compartment syndrome allow for the following criteria:
- ripple on the perimeter of the limb;
- swelling visible to the naked eye;
- disrupts the function of the nerve endings;
- positive blood tests for excessive leukocytosis;
- podfartilo high blood pressure.
Ripple will be visible almost always, except for moments when the arteries and vessels are further occluded by a blood clot.
Swelling may also be noticeable, but only when the affected nerve trunks. But the blood tests allow to detect only infectious processes. But the measurement pdfscanner pressure allows you to more clearly define the patient’s illness.
How to treat it?
Conservative treatment of compartment syndrome includes:
- it is necessary to isolate the affected segment of tissue from any mechanical compression, it is impossible to place any bandages and plasters in order to prevent possible ischemia;
- removing spasm of blood vessels in order to restore blood circulation;
- getting rid of various infections;
- the pain relief with the first couple of days it is possible to use narcotic drugs;
- you need as much as possible to reduce swelling on the affected surface;
- a variety of blood thinners and allowing to cope with possible thrombosis.