Osteoarthritis of the hip joint: diagnosis and treatment
How to treat arthrosis of the hip joint? Deforming coxarthrosis, or, in other osteoarthritis, is a disease that is considered the most common among degenerative changes of the musculoskeletal system of the human body.
Diseases that cause the onset of osteoarthritis
Most often osteoarthritis affects people over 40 years old. In the initial stages of arthrosis of the hip joint illness is treated well without surgery. If patients are not addressed at an early stage of the disease to the doctor and did not receive timely treatment, the disease progresses, the patient’s condition deteriorates.
Primary arthrosis deformans of the hip joint occurs for unclear reasons. Secondary osteoarthritis is a complication of other diseases such as:
- Perthes disease;
- dysplasia of the hip joint;
- congenital dislocation of the hip;
- necrosis of the femoral head;
- traumatic injuries;
- inflammation of the hip joint.
There are cases of deformation of one or both compounds. Bilateral osteoarthritis is also common among patients. Primary osteoarthritis sometimes affects the spine or the knee joint.
The hip connection is formed connecting the femur and the Ilium. Movement of these bones made possible due to the special physiology of cartilage. During compression the cartilage secretes synovial fluid, which has properties of lubrication. It forms a protective film on the surface of the cartilage. Its thickness depends on the force of impact on bone. The greater the load the greater the thickness of the lubricant.
Glenoid cavity is located in the capsule, composed of strong fibrous tissue. Of great importance for the performance of the functions of the joints have muscles. If the thigh muscles are poorly developed, it impairs the function of the connection. Femoral and gluteal muscles act as shock absorbers. With strong muscles reduces the risk of injury when running or jumping.
In the muscles are the blood vessels that supply tissues with oxygen and nutrients.
The reasons for the development of the disease
Arthrosis of the left and osteoarthritis of the right hip joint have their reasons. Since the beginning of the development of the disease change the properties of synovial fluid. It becomes more dense and viscous. Without good lubrication, the cartilage dries out, its surface covered with cracks. The cartilage becomes thinner. Reduced distance between the bones forming the joint.
Pressure on the bones increases, causing them to deform. In addition to the deterioration of the properties of the joint fluid, the blood circulation in the affected tissues and worsens the metabolism in the tissues. Gradually the muscles will atrophy.
Causes osteoarthritis hip joint:
- the deterioration of articular diseases;
- increased physical load;
- biochemical disorders of cartilage;
- hormonal disease;
- traumatic injuries;
- infectious diseases and inflammation of joint tissue;
- necrosis of the head of the hip bone;
- pathology of the spine and feet.
- dysplasia of the hip joint;
- congenital dislocation of the hip;
- poor muscle development;
- sedentary lifestyle;
- genetic predisposition to the disease.
Common symptoms are:
- pain in the pelvic region;
- pain in the hip, knee load in a calm state;
- one leg becomes shorter;
- atrophy of the thigh muscles.
With osteoarthritis of the hip symptoms depend on the stage of development of the disease. At the initial stage of the disease pain mild. Therefore, patients often do not seek medical attention immediately, hoping the pain will go away itself. The main symptoms of osteoarthritis of the hip is pain.
If the person is not drawn to the doctor, the destruction of the tissues continues. The pain increases, the patient begins to limp. Atrophy of the thigh muscles. It causes pain in the knee and the tendons. Knee sometimes having severe pain. So the doctor can make a diagnosis of osteoarthritis of the knee joint. Patient is prescribed the wrong treatment, and the disease progresses. Diagnosis is conducted by experienced podiatrist, who will prescribe the right treatment.
Medicine distinguishes three degrees of osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis of the hip joint of 1 degree causes pain appearing after physical exertion, for example after a run or long walk. The pain occurs in the hip joint. Sometimes there is pain in the hip or knee.
While gait disturbance is not observed, muscle atrophy does not occur. If you do the x-ray, then it will be visible a small amount of bone growths, does not extend beyond the joint. The head of the femur does not change. There is a narrowing of the joint space.
Deforming arthrosis of 2 degrees causes increased pain. They become more intense and occur not only in the hip joint, but give in the thigh and groin. The pain may occur even at rest. When walking appears limp. Of joint function are violated. The muscles begin to atrophy. X-ray image shows bone growth on the outer and inner edges of the cartilage. The deformation of the femur. Can cause cysts in the parts of the head, which are subjected to maximum load. Thickened the neck of the femur. Narrows the gap of the hip joint up to 1/3 of its initial height. The head of the hip bone upwards.
With 3 degrees of osteoarthritis causing severe pain that continues constantly, including at night. When walking, the patient needs a cane. Mobility limited. Muscles atrophied. Because of muscle weakness, the pelvis tilts in the frontal plane, which leads to a shortening of the leg on the affected side. To during walk to get to the ground, the patient leans sideways to compensate for the deformity of the pelvis. This leads to an overload of the joint. X-ray image shows large bony growths from the side of the acetabulum and the femoral head. Significantly expands the neck of the femur.
Diagnosis of coxarthrosis includes:
- the study of the intensity of the pain;
- measurement of range of motion;
- the identification of gait disorders;
- definition muscle atrophy;
- the identification of differences in leg length;
- study pain on palpation;
- identify the disorders of adjacent joints;
- the study of disorders of sensation and circulation.
Medicine offers the following methods of instrumental diagnosis of the disease:
- a panoramic radiograph of the pelvis;
- axial radiography;
- computed tomography;
- magnetic resonance imaging;
For differential diagnosis, hold the puncture of the hip joint with the study of synovial fluid. In case of arthrosis of the joint, the patient history helps establish the correct diagnosis.
Initial diagnosis is conducted by way of examination of the patient and radiological examination. The doctor establishes the etiology and stage of the disease. When hip x-ray image shows the skewness, the flattening of the acetabulum and the increase in neck angle. If the ailment is caused by complications of Perthes disease, the x-ray image shows violations of the shaped end of the femur. Deformed bones of the head and a reduced neck angle.
Diagnosis of the disease is complicated by the fact that the symptoms of osteoarthritis are similar to the features of osteoarthritis of the knee. Accurate diagnosis helps to establish x-ray examination.
Treatment of hip osteoarthritis
How to treat arthrosis of the hip joint? Treatment is to reduce pain, preservation of joint mobility with no assumption of disease progression.
In the early stages conservative treatment of osteoarthritis of the hip joint. Medication drugs used to treat:
- anti-inflammatory drugs;
- substitutes of synovial fluid.
Physiotherapy treatment is carried out in a clinic or sanatorium. It includes:
- underwater massage;
- thermal therapy;
- bath (at home);
- exercise to strengthen the muscles;
Treatment of osteoarthritis of the hip joint involves the use of orthopedic wedge pillows, orthotics, lift seats.
If conservative treatment of osteoarthritis of the hip is not effective or the disease is in the advanced stage, apply surgical treatment.
Surgical treatment of osteoarthritis of the hip joint:
- corrective surgery, joint-preserving procedures (osteotomy of the pelvis and the femur);
- arthrodesis surgery in which the hip joint is closed;
- arthroplasty, which replaces the affected joint.
When replacement the diseased joint is replaced with prosthesis. During the operation one part of the prosthesis implanted in the femur and another in the pelvic bone. The implant replicates the features on this joint and allows the patient to lead an active life.
In the early stages of the disease folk treatment is aimed at pain relief. Patients are recommended a special diet for osteoarthritis. Diet for arthritis involves the use of in the diet special dietary supplements that contain collagen. It prevents the deformation of the joint, restores the ligaments.
For pain treatment of osteoarthritis of the hip joint folk remedies involves the local use of poultices, ointments, lotions.
Good folk remedy — cow parsnip. Use the leaves of the plant. They need to be put in boiling water, then put in cheesecloth. After cooling, the gauze with leaves applied to aching joints.
Treatment of hip joint arthrosis is carried out using poultices made of white and blue clay. Traditional methods use the bath from the roots of Larkspur. In 10 liters of boiling water 200 g of crushed root.
Apply such folk remedies as bath of hay dust. The diseased joint is wrapped with canvas soaked in broth hay dust.
To improve the production of joint fluid and activation of regenerative processes of metabolism, use honey, which contains a large number of trace elements, vitamins, organic acids.
Helps a massage using honey. First, the joint is heated with a hot water bottle, and then massaged and rubbed in warm honey to the area of the patient’s joint. The massage lasts for 20 minutes, then the joint is put gauze in 4 layers. The poultice is kept for 3 hours. Then the skin must be washed with warm water. The course of treatment — 10 packs. 3 compress do daily, the rest every other day.
Good folk remedies for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the hip joint — the compress of cabbage leaves. The sheet should pour boiling water, mash and smear with honey. Then attach it to the joint, to close the foil and wrap a warm cloth. Compress leave for the night.
Use oil of celandine. It is necessary to take 8 tbsp of chopped leaves and stems of celandine, pour 1 liter of olive oil, seal and leave for 2 weeks. After that, the solution should be filtered and used for massage and rubbing.
In case of arthrosis of the joint treatment of folk remedies effectively at an early stage of the disease.
Nutrition with osteoarthritis
To reduce the load on the diseased joint, the patient needs to get rid of excessive weight. Diet for osteoarthritis should be balanced and contain an alkaline diet (and 1 part of acidic products should have 2 pieces of alkaline foods).
Diet for osteoarthritis contains dairy products, milk, fruits, bone broth, belokachannoy cabbage, celery, birch juice. Recommended food containing honey, grain, fresh vegetables. It is necessary to reduce flour dishes, spicy dishes and cured meats. Diet for osteoarthritis of the hip joint requires to reduce the use of fatty meat, fish, tomatoes, beans.
The need of physical exercise
At home you can do physical exercises. A course of therapeutic exercises should be prescribed by a doctor. Exercises strengthen the muscles of the thigh, back and abdominal wall.
Exercise prevents muscle atrophy. Before the exercises are carried out thermal treatments and massages.
If there is pain exercises at home doing slowly in a prone position. The main burden thus falls on the healthy leg. After the cessation of the pain load is applied on both legs.
The number of movements increase gradually. After subsiding of pain, you can perform exercises in the sitting position. The pace of the classroom must be calm. If there is severe pain, stop the exercise.
At home osteoarthritis of the hip treated with physical exercises. Treatment physical therapy continues for 1 month. After this you part of the exercises to perform standing and alternate them with breathing exercises.
For the therapeutic effect of exercise performed regularly at least 2 times a day for a long time.
Prevention of disease
The primary preventive measures include early detection of dysplasia or congenital dislocation of the hip in children, their treatment. Secondary prevention measures include the identification of patients with initial symptoms of osteoarthritis of the hip joint. Such patients should receive regular treatment every six months.