Osteoarthritis: symptoms and treatment of diseases of the knee, hip and other joints
Symptoms and comprehensive approach to the treatment of osteoarthritis
One of the leading joint disease osteoarthritis is considered, significantly reduces the quality of life of patients.
Degenerative-dystrophic changes, gradually formed in the large joints, and prevents people to move freely, limiting its performance and ability to actively relax.
The progression of the disease leads to difficulties with walking, especially stairs, and to the inability to perform the usual work of his hands.
The upward trend in the incidence of osteoarthritis and an increase of other types of lesions of joints required to extend research and to enhance clinical practice in osteo-articular diseases.
According to the decision of who the first decade of the twenty-first century was devoted to clarify the complex causes and risk factors that trigger the development of intra-articular changes and the development of treatment and rehabilitation programs.
To figure out the exact cause of the disease difficult
Extensive research in the field of rheumatology has allowed to identify the causes of osteoarthritis development:
- age-related changes in cartilage tissue, leading to a transformation of the joint after the age of 50;
- excessive weight of the patient contributes to the fraying of the articular membranes at the expense of increased load on knee and hip joints of the bones;
- a genetic factor may affect the incidence of osteoarthritis in members of the same family and close relatives;injury of the joints, including domestic and sports injuries, injuries during outdoor activities;
- some systemic diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, an overabundance of growth hormones or iron in the body);
- professional activity, characterized by increased loads on the musculoskeletal system (weight lifting, prolonged static postures or repetitive active movement).
Risk factors of a social nature that lead to the formation of pathological changes in the joint capsule, are overeating and wearing uncomfortable shoes (high heel, tapered nose).
Among other factors of particular importance to the profession of miners and builders, some of the sports specialties (weightlifters, and gymnasts, skiers and athletes).
Some useful statistics
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Medical statistics show that about two-thirds of the population over 40 have the initial forms of degenerative changes in the joints.
80% of individuals older than 60 years revealed osteoarthritis, almost every person after reaching the age of 80 suffers from destruction of cartilage and other joint components. The increase in life expectancy brings the disease in the group of the main causes of disability in the world.
Often ill women who are in the pathological process initially involves the hands, caused by the large consumer loads.
Osteoarthritis most often affects the knee joints, the spine and the hip joint. The greatest number of women with progressive synovial joint damage is fixed at the age of 65-74 years in men the peak incidence is shifted to the period after 75 years.
Classification of the disease
Classification shall be in accordance with ICD-10 on several criteria.
The nature of the formation:
- primary osteoarthritis is formed as a result of functional overload;
- secondary is associated with exposure of the underlying disease (endocrine disease and injury, inflammation and metabolic disorders, tuberculosis, and syphilis).
The scale of the defeat:
- monoartrit characterized by involvement of a single joint;
- polyosteoarthritis is a generalized form with lesions of more than 3 joints;
- oligoantigenic characterized by the presence of changes in the two articular joints;
- spondylitis is a combination of degenerative disc disease and osteoarthritis;
At the location of the lesion distinguish osteoarthritis:
- knee joint;
- hip joint;
- lose shoulder joints;
- the hands and the metatarsophalangeal.
Deforming diseases: the challenges and
Deforming osteoarthritis called chronic defeat of joints of non-inflammatory character associated with a decrease of cartilage proteoglycans.
Loss of elasticity of the joint shell leads to cracking and tearing, and subsequently to exposure of the bone parts. As a result significantly reduced the amplitude of movement of the limbs, appear crunchy sounds when turning the torso and neck.
Due to the lack of cartilage, irregular growth of bones in the area of contact that causes deformation of the joints. To the greatest extent seen in the phalanges of the hands and hip joints, which significantly reduces efficiency.
Osteoarthritis and osteoarthritis — is there a difference?
The term osteoarthritis is adopted in English medicine, signifies a group of multifactorial diseases with similar morphology and clinical manifestations associated with degenerative changes in the articular components.
The characteristic features are local loss of cartilage and hypertrophy of bone endings with the appearance of osteophytes and the increasing of the joint capsule.
According to the current ICD-10 and in accordance with the decisions of the Plenum of orthopedists and rheumatologists (2003) considered the concept of osteoarthrit and osteoarthrosis synonyms.
Thus in clinical practice and research more often used second meaning of the group of joint diseases.
What is the violation?
Common symptoms of osteoarthritis are consistently manifested signs:
- the pain is not too disturbing a patient’s rest and aggravated by stress on the joint or active movements;
- stiffness of the joints with the typical difficulties at the beginning of motor activity, especially in the morning;
- swelling of the affected joint caused by increased secretion of synovial fluid;
- the crunch of the joints with progressive limitation of mobility.
Experts are diagnosed
Diagnosis aims to differentiate the type of disease and to determine the extent of articular changes. In the presence of external symptoms (deformity of the hands and swelling of the knee joint) osteoarthritis does not give the perceived characteristics in laboratory tests (no inflammatory reaction or an excess of uric acid in the whey of blood).
Deforming lesion detected on x-rays, thermographic maps and in the case of an ultrasound. Hardware methods allow you to see not only bone growth, but also to evaluate the degree of inhibition of the surrounding tissues.
Treatment of osteoarthritis aims to relieve pain and slow the progression of deformities of the joints.
In clinical practice in recent years used the following methods:
- drug therapy, including analgesics and anti-inflammatories;
- intraarticular steroid injections in order of pain relief and the normalization of the synovial fluid;
- personal a physical therapy course with the provision of metered loads to prevent muscle atrophy and preserve range of motion;
- weight correction to reduce the load on the joint;
- physical therapy to strengthen cartilage in the initial stages;
- joint replacement (mainly hip and knee joints).
Start disease it is impossible!
In the later stages of a possible unbearable pain even with little movements, causing the patient to seek a comfortable position and remain stationary.
The growth of osteophytes on the spot loss of cartilage contributes to the limitation of joint mobility due to the inability of the bone slip processes within the joint capsule.
The result is not only disability, but there is a need for third party care for the patient.
Rehabilitation activities include Spa services and a set of measures undertaken at home:
- alternation of stress on the joints and relax;
- a full set of vitamins, but the limited caloric food;
- specially selected exercises, which exclude overloading of the joints;
- walking and swimming;
- the use of canes and other devices that minimize joint loads.
To protect the body from the formation of the disease helps the combination of healthy nutrition and adequate physical activity.
It is necessary to avoid injuries and lifting of excessive weights, to exclude extreme sports holidays and sports, with an insufficient level of training.
Osteoarthritis, which occupies a leading position in the complex of the articular disease, must be treated upon appearance of first symptoms to prevent the onset of complete immobility and disability.
The progression of the disease can be suspended, if you adjust your lifestyle, ensuring adequate joint flexibility to a ripe old age.